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10 Orang Yang Meninggal Dengan Cara Aneh Banyak kita baca maupun saksikan cara-cara meninggal kebanyakan orang-orang di sekeliling kita. Ada yang meninggal karena sakit, ada yang karena kecelakaan, ada yang bunuh diri, ada juga karena pembunuhan. Berikut ini kita akan menyaksikan beberapa orang yang meninggal dengan cara yang tidak lazim alias aneh, lain daripada yang lain. Pastinya kisah-kisah berikut dapat memberikan gambaran betapa anehnya mereka saat menghadapi kematian.

10 Orang Yang Meninggal Dengan Cara Aneh

Banyak kita baca maupun saksikan cara-cara meninggal kebanyakan orang-orang di sekeliling kita. Ada yang meninggal karena sakit, ada yang karena kecelakaan, ada yang bunuh diri, ada juga karena pembunuhan. Berikut ini kita akan menyaksikan beberapa orang yang meninggal dengan cara yang tidak lazim alias aneh, lain daripada yang lain. Pastinya kisah- kisah berikut dapat memberikan gambaran betapa anehnya mereka saat menghadapi kematian.


1. Isadora Duncan, (27 Mei 1877 s.d 14 September 1927)


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Isadora Duncan merupakan seorang penari yang lahir di San Fransisco. Ia meniti karirnya sebagai penari di Paris dan membuka tiga sekolah tari. Namanya pun diukir di pintu masukThéâtre des Champs-Élysées. Isadora Duncan mati ketika scarf (Syal atau selendang) nya tersangkut di roda mobil yang ditumpanginya, dan mencekiknya sehingga dia mati seketika. The New York Times menulis tentang kematiannya sebagai berikut:

“The automobile was going at full speed when the scarf of h2 silk began winding around the wheel and with terrific force dragged Miss Duncan, around whom it was securely wrapped, bodily over the side of the car, precipitating her with violence against the cobblestone street. She was dragged for several yards before the chauffeur halted, attracted by her cries in the street. Medical aid was summoned, but it was stated that she had been strangled and killed instantly.”


2. Christine Chubbuck, (24 Agustus 1944 s.d 15 Juli 1974)


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Christine Chubbuck merupakan seorang penyiar “Suncoast Digest” yang merupakan salah satu program pada channel WXLT-TV di daerah Sarasota, Florida pada saat itu.
Christine saat itu membacakan berita nasional selama 8 menit sebelum mendadak terjadi kerusakan pada “tape reel” nya. Christine tidak peduli akan hal itu, ia kemudian berkata pada kamera yang menyorotnya:

“In keeping with Channel 40’s policy of bringing you the latest in blood and guts, and in living color, you are going to see another first: an attempted suicide.”

Artinya adalah “Sesuai dengan kebijakan Channel 40’s membawa anda terbaru dan ketekunan dalam darah, dan warna dalam hidup, Anda akan melihat lain dari yang pertama: percobaan bunuh diri”

Setelah itu ia mengeluarkan pistol revolver dari bawah mejanya, dan memposisikannya di samping telinga kirinya, lalu menembak dirinya sendiri. Dia lalu terjatuh di depan kamera. Beberapa penonton menelepon 911 dan studio itu untuk menanyakan apakah itu bener-benar terjadi. Faktanya adalah, dia benar-benar menembak kepalanya dan mati saat itu juga.


3. Francis Bacon, (22 Januari 1561 s.d 9 April 1626)


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Francis Bacon adalah seorang filsafat dan ilmuwan. Ia adalah salah seorang ilmuwan yang mati akibat eksperimennya sendiri. Pada tahun 1625, ia mendadak mendapat sebuah ide. “Mengapa harus mengawetkan makanan dengan garam seperti yang dilakukan orang biasanya? ” Dia kemudian pergi membeli seekor ayam dan mulai menumpukkan salju ke dalamnya. Eksperimen itu ternyata gagal, ayamnya tidak membeku. Karena cuaca pada saat itu begitu dingin, tiba-tiba dia terkena pneumonia. Francis Bacon lalu memanggang dan memakan ayam itu. Kali ini dia juga gagal. Akhirnya matilah ia.


4. Attila the Hun, (406 s.d 453)

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Attila The Hun adalah salah satu ahli strategi, penguasa, dan penjahat besar yang menguasai Asia pada tahun 450 masehi. Ia dikenal akan kebiasaan makan dan minumnya yang aneh. Attila pastilah berpikir bahwa malam pernikahannya pantas dirayakan, ia kemudian menikahi seorang gadis muda bernama Ildico. Pada tahun 453, ia makan dan minum terlalu banyak, dan dari hidungnya mulai keluar darah. Terlalu mabuk untuk peduli, ia terus menerus mimisan sampai dia mati.


5. Aeschylus, (525/524 BC s.d 456 BC)

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Aeschylus adalah seorang seniman yang karyanya masih bisa diingat hingga kini. Ketika ia mengunjungi Gela di pulau Sicily, terjadilah hal yang tidak biasanya. Seekor burung elang menjatuhkan seekor kura-kura pada kepala botak Aeschylus. Mungkin saja elang tersebut menyangka kepala Aeschylus adalah sebuah batu, hingga ia bermaksud memecahkan batok kura-kura dengan menjatuhkannya tepat di kepalanya. Karena faktor ketinggian dan kerasnya benturan, maka matilah Aeschylus. Beberapa catatan mengatakan bahwa elang itu menyangka kepala botak Aeschylus adalah telur.


6. King Adolf Frederick of Sweden, (14 Mei 1710 s.d 12 Februari 1771)


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Raja Adolf yang biasa dikenal dengan sebutan King Adolf Frederick of Swedenmerupakan raja Swedia dari tahun 1751 hingga 1771. Ia dikenal dengan nama “the king who ate himself to death”. Pada tanggal 12 Februari, 1771, setelah memakan lobster, caviar, sauerkraut, herring panggang, dan meminum champagne, ia bukannya berhenti, tapi malah melanjutkan makan dengan hidangan penutup kesukaannya, Semla (sebuah pudding tradisional yang disajikan dalam mangkuk dengan susu panas). Satu porsi sudah cukup, namun 14 porsi itu sungguh berlebihan. Ia mati beberapa saat kemudian karena masalah pencernaan.


7. Tycho Brahe, (14 Desember 1546 s.d 24 Oktober 1601)


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Tycho Brahe terkenal sebagai seorang ahli kimia dan astronomi. Brahe memprionirkan pengamatan tentang gerakan planet-planet sesuai dengan hukum gravitasi Newton.
Tycho Brahe juga dikenal mempunyai kantung kemih yang kecil dan lemah, sehingga ketika ia hendak buang air kecil di tengah-tengah pesta penting, ia terpaksa menahannya. Untuk memperburuk keadaan, ia malah minum banyak banyak, dan akhirnya kantung kemihnya meledak didalam tubuhnya dan membuatnya mati. Perlu diketahui, di adat kebiasaan masyarakat saat itu, meninggalkan sebuah pesta merupakan perilaku yang tidak beradab, mungkin itulah yang menyebabkan Tycho Brahe menahan kencingnya di tengah-tengah pesta. Ada debat yang mengatakan bahwa dia mati karena hyponatremia (kekurangan kadar sodium dalam darah), dan ada yang mengatakan dia mati karena keracunan merkuri.


8. Grigori Rasputin, (22 Januari 1869 s.d 29 Desember1916)


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Mungkin inilah orang tertangguh di seri cerita kali ini. Grigori Rasputin adalah seorang berkebangsaan russia yang merupakan pewaris Prince Aleksey, yang mempunyai banyak musuh. Banyak yang menginginkan dia mati.

Saat percobaan pembunuhan yang dilakukan oleh musuhnya, pertama-tama, dia diracun dengan sebuah racun yang cukup kuat untuk membunuh 3 orang (Sianida), namun nampaknya racun tersebut tidak berpengaruh pada Rasputin, maka mereka menyelinap dari belakang dan menembaknya di kepalanya. Seharusnya Rasputin sudah mati, tapi ternyata tidak… ketika salah seorang pembunuhnya mengecek detak nadinya, Rasputin malah balik mencekik pembunuhnya. Lalu Rasputin pun berhasil melarikan diri.

Pembunuhnya kemudian melayangkan sebelum berhasil mengejarnya. Lalu mereka membacok dan memukulnya, kemudian melemparnya ke sebuah sungai beku yang dingin. Setelah mati dan diotopsi, ternyata hasilnya adalah Rasputin mati karena tenggelam.


9. Sharon Lopatka, (20 September 1961 s.d 16 Oktober 1996)


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Sharon Lopatka adalah seorang pengusaha internet di Maryland USA, yang dibunuh oleh Robert Frederick Glass. Mula-mula, Sharon memasang iklan seks di situs pribadinya Ia mencari dan meminta seorang sukarelawan yang bersedia untuk menyiksa dan membunuhnya sebagai sebuah pemenuhan nafsu seksual. Akhirnya ia menemukan Robert Glass. Mereka saling bertukar email dan setuju untuk bertemu di North Carolina. Glass menyiksanya selama beberapa hari sebelum akhirnya mencekiknya dengan sehelai benang nilon. Glass kemudian divonis pembunuhan sukarela.


10. Bernd Jürgen Brandes


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Semuanya bermula dari seorang yang bernama Armin Meiwes, seorang jerman yang menderita kelainan. Ia adalah seorang Biseksual yang memasang sebuah iklan di internet mencari seorang biseksual lain yang bersedia untuk dimakan olehnya. Tulisannya adalah sebagai berikut:

“looking for a well-built 18 to 30-year-old to be slaughtered and then consumed”.
 

 Setelah banyak balasan yang tidak serius, akhirnya Bernd Brandes mengkontak Meiwes. Mereka kemudian bertemu di villa kecil di Roteburg, pada Natal 25 December 2001. Apa yang terjadi adalah, Meiwes memotong penis Brandes dan keduanya berusaha untuk memakannya. Pertama-tama, Brandes memaksa Meiwes agar meiwes menggigit putus penisnya, namun hal itu tidak berhasil, maka ia pun menggunakan pisau. Mereka memasak penis tersebut sebelum memakannya. Kemudian Barnes dibunuh dan bagian-bagian tubuhnya disimpan dalam rumahnya sebagai cadangan makanan selama 10 bulan. Semua proses itu di rekam dalam video pribadi.

Meiwes akhirnya ditangkap dan dijatuhi hukuman 8 setengah tahun di penjara. Meiwes percaya bahwa ada sekitar 800 kanibal di jerman.

Saco-Indonesia.com - Ketahuilah buah nangka adalah salah satu buah tropis yang mudah ditemui di Indonesia. Nangka kaya akan vitamin, mineral, dan nutrisi yang dapat membantu meningkatkan kekebalan tubuh.

Saco-Indonesia.com - Ketahuilah buah nangka adalah salah satu buah tropis yang mudah ditemui di Indonesia. Nangka kaya akan vitamin, mineral, dan nutrisi yang dapat membantu meningkatkan kekebalan tubuh.

Selain itu, berikut adalah manfaat nangka untuk kesehatan yang selama ini jarang Anda ketahui.

Baik untuk pencernaan
Nangka kaya akan vitamin C. Selain membantu meningkatkan kekebalan tubuh, vitamin C juga mampu membuat pencernaan menjadi sehat. Hal ini disebabkan karena vitamin C mampu mencegah masalah sembelit.

Mencegah kanker
Kandungan lignan dan saponin yang ada di dalam nangka mampu mencegah serangan kanker di dalam tubuh. Kedua nutrisi ini mampu menghalau radikal bebas yang nantinya dapat berubah menjadi sel kanker.

Mencegah masalah kulit
Vitamin A yang dikandung oleh nangka mampu mencegah berbagai infeksi kulit dan membuat kulit Anda jadi lebih sehat serta bersinar.

Membantu menurunkan tekanan darah
Nangka baik dikonsumsi oleh Anda yang menderita tekanan darah tinggi sebab kandungan potasium yang ada di dalam nangka mampu menurunkan tekanan darah tinggi serta mencegah resiko penyakit jantung dan stroke.

Baik untuk kekuatan tulang
Nangka banyak mengandung mineral seperti magnesium dan kalsium yang mampu mencegah resiko radang sendi dan osteoporosis.

Baik untuk kesehatan darah
Buah ini kaya akan zat besi sehingga membantu mencegah masalah anemia pada wanita dan juga memperbaiki sel-sel darah merah di dalam tubuh.

Baik untuk menjaga kesehatan tiroid
Kandungan mineral lain yang ada di dalam nangka seperti tembaga baik untuk menjaga dan mempertahankan tiroid agar tetap berfungsi normal.

Baik untuk menurunkan berat badan
Nangka baik untuk dikonsumsi bagi mereka yang sedang berdiet sebab nangka mengandung sedikit kalori, lemak jenuh, dan karbohidrat.

Dengan begitu banyak manfaat kesehatan yang dimiliki oleh nangka, jangan ragu untuk menyertakan nangka dalam menu sehat Anda!

Editor : Maulana Lee

Sumber:merdeka.com

saco-indonesia.com, Pengunjung pertokoan Udayana di Jalan Letda Made Putra, Denpasar, telah dikejutkan dengan adanya suara ledak

saco-indonesia.com, Pengunjung pertokoan Udayana di Jalan Letda Made Putra, Denpasar, telah dikejutkan dengan adanya suara ledakan keras yang telah terjadi. Usut punya usut, ledakan tersebut telah berasal dari meteran listrik.

"Semua orang di sini juga sempat terkejut mendengar ledakan itu," kata Budi Arsana, pengunjung pertokoan Udayana, Kamis (2/1).

Meteran listrik yang berkapasitas 11.00 watt itu meledak sekitar pukul 09.00 Wita ketika sejumlah toko di kompleks pertokoan tersebut baru buka.

Meteran yang telah meledak itu berada di depan toko Balonku yang telah menjual perlengkapan bayi. Bahkan, ledakan yang ditimbulkan telah mengakibatkan tempat sampah di bawahnya terbakar.

"Beberapa pembeli pun langsung lari, begitu mendengar suara ledakan yang mirip petasan," kata Ni Komang Sarini, pelayan toko Balonku.

Ledakan itu tidak sampai mengakibatkan toko dan barang-barang dagangan di dalamnya terbakar.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

Apakah semua rangkaian haji yang merupakan wajib haji kalau ditinggalkan karena sesuatu dan lain hal boleh digantikan dengan dam

Apakah semua rangkaian haji yang merupakan wajib haji kalau ditinggalkan karena sesuatu dan lain hal boleh digantikan dengan dam?

Jawab:
Betul. Wajib haji yang tidak bisa dilaksanakan harus diganti dengan Dam yaitu memotong seekor kambing, seperti:
- Tidak Mabit di Muzdalifah atau Mina.
- Melewati Miqot Makani tidak berniat Ihrom.
- Membungkus kaki atau menutup kepala karena uzur bagi pria.
Tapi kalau melanggar larangan ihrom seperti pakai minyak wangi, memotong rambut atau kuku, memetik tumbuh-tumbuhan Damnya cukup sekitar 20 real, tidak memotong seekor kambing.

Sumber : http://www.jurnalhaji.com

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Stasiun merupakan pusat berkumpulnya calon penumpang yang akan pergi menggunakan jasa transportasi kereta api. Dengan hiruk pikuk seperti itu, ada 8 hal yang harus diketahui traveler saat berada di stasiun. detikTravel, Kamis (30/5/2013) menyusun kiat khusus bagi traveler yang sedang berada di stasiun kereta dan hendak berlibur menggunakan jasa transportasi kereta api. Berikut 8 tips yang mungkin bisa membuat Anda nyaman saat berada di stasiun kereta:

Stasiun merupakan pusat berkumpulnya calon penumpang yang akan pergi menggunakan jasa transportasi kereta api. Dengan hiruk pikuk seperti itu, ada 8 hal yang harus diketahui traveler saat berada di stasiun.

menyusun kiat khusus bagi traveler yang sedang berada di stasiun kereta dan hendak berlibur menggunakan jasa transportasi kereta api. Berikut 8 tips yang mungkin bisa membuat Anda nyaman saat berada di stasiun kereta:

1. Datang lebih awal ke stasiun kereta

Ketika Anda akan melakukan perjalanan menggunakan transportasi kereta api jarak jauh, sebaiknya Anda datang lebih awal dari jadwal keberangkatan yang tertera di tiket. Apalagi bagi traveler yang berdomisili di Jakarta, karena kemacetan ibukota yang tidak bisa diprediksi.

Persiapkan waktu panjang untuk berangkat lebih awal dari rumah, sehingga Anda bisa tenang sampai di stasiun. Sebaiknya, Anda tiba di stasiun 1 jam sebelum jadwal keberangkatan kereta Anda. Lebih baik Anda menunggu lama di stasiun sampai keberangkatan itu tiba, daripada tiket Anda hangus karena ketinggalan kereta.

2. Waspada kejahatan

Aksi kejahatan selalu menjadi hal klasik ketika kita berada di suatu pusat keramaian. Orang-orang jahat selalu mengiringi kita termasuk di dalam stasiun kereta. Misalnya saja copet, mereka siap beraksi dengan jurus jitunya dan selalu tergugah untuk mengambil barang-barang berharga kita.

Banyak trik dan modus yang sudah mereka rancang sehingga barang Anda bisa raib di tangan copet. Jangan sesekali mengumbar barang berharga Anda seperti gadget, dompet, perhiasan dan lainnya. Menjaga barang berharga yang Anda miliki tidak ada ruginya, ketimbang Anda menangis karena kelengahan Anda.

3. Beli tiket di loket resmi

Bagi traveler yang hendak pergi dengan menggunakan angkutan kereta api, pasti Anda harus membeli tiket terlebih dulu. Setiap stasiun pasti sudah disediakan loket resmi untuk membeli tiket kereta.

Tapi, tak lepas dari itu masih banyak calo-calo nakal yang menawarkan tiket dengan harga yang melonjak dari harga asli, terutama saat musim liburan seperti Lebaran. Lebih baik mengantre di loket, daripada Anda harus membayar tiket dengan harga mahal dari calo tersebut.

4. Jangan mudah percaya dengan orang asing

Manusia diciptakan Tuhan dengan berbagai macam karakter dan sifat. Ada orang baik, namun tak jauh dengan orang jahat. Jangan mudah percaya dengan orang lain yang baru kita kenal. Seperti halnya, jangan sembarang menitipkan tas atau barang yang Anda bawa. Bisa-bisa barang Anda raib di tangan orang yang baru Anda kenal.

5. Jaga kebersihan

Menjaga kebersihan merupakan hal yang wajib kita terapkan di mana saja, termasuk di stasiun. Banyak orang yang suka melalaikan hal kecil ini. Padahal pihak stasiun sudah menyediakan banyak tempat sampah di setiap sudut ruangan stasiun.

Dari sekarang, biasakan jangan membuang sampah di sembarang tempat agar kita tetap nyaman saat berada di stasiun. Selain itu, Anda juga harus mempunyai rasa saling memiliki dan menjaga fasilitas yang ada di sekitar kita, sehingga tercipta kenyamanan di stasiun kereta. Dengan hal itu pula, suasana sekitar menjadi enak dipandang mata.

6. Bingung jadwal dan jalur kereta, tanya ke petugas

Terkadang sesama penumpang sama-sama tidak tahu jadwal atau jalur keberangkatan kereta. Kereta yang akan diberangkatkan dari stasiun tersebut tak hanya 1 pemberangkatan saja. Jalur kereta yang disediakan juga banyak dan membingungkan calon penumpang.

Jika Anda masih ragu dengan keberangkatan kereta Anda, sebaiknya tanyakan kepada petugas tentang kepastian jadwal tersebut. Jangan sampai Anda ketinggalan kereta karena salah jadwal dan jalur pemberangkatan kereta yang akan ditumpangi.

7. Bawa makanan ringan dan minuman jika perlu

Bagi traveler yang gemar cemal-cemil, Anda bisa menyiapkan makanan ringan yang bisa dibawa dari rumah. Sembari menunggu kereta tiba, Anda bisa membuka bekal tersebut agar tidak terlalu bosan untuk menunggu datangnya kereta.

8. Hati-Hati dengan porter

Setiap stasiun besar banyak orang yang menawarkan jasa angkut yang biasa disebut dengan porter. Ketika traveler baru tiba di stasiun kereta, porter biasanya menyerbu penumpang untuk menawarkan jasa itu.

Jika tak ingin memakai jasa tersebut, sebaiknya amankan barang-barang bawaan Anda terlebih dulu. Jangan sampai barang tersebut diangkut tanpa sepengetahuan Anda, kemudian Anda dikenai tarif mahal sesudahnya. Selamat Traveling!

saco-indonesia.com, Diduga karena cemburu mantan pacarnya didekati oleh temannya,  Rido Hasan yang berusia 21 tahun , karya

saco-indonesia.com, Diduga karena cemburu mantan pacarnya didekati oleh temannya,  Rido Hasan yang berusia 21 tahun , karyawan Indomaret, telah tewas ditusuk tersangka F di halaman parkir Indomaret, Desa Candimas, Natar, Lampung Selatan, pada Sabtu (1/2) malam.

Tersangka F yang langsung kabur dengan mengendaraai sepeda motor usai menusuk leher korban dengan pisau belati, malam sekitar pukul 22.00 malam itu.

Saat kejadian tersebut , korban warga Dusun IV, Desa Pancasila, Natar, Lampung Selatan, hendak pulang kerja.

Warga yang telah melihat langsung memberikan pertolongan membawa korban ke Rumah Sakit Medika Natar namun karena terlalu banyak mengluarkan darah nyawa korban akhirnya tidak berhasil diselamatkan.

Kapolsek Natar Kompol Yohanes Agustiandaru juga telah membenarkan, ada laporan kasus pembunuhan di Desa Candi Mas Natar atas nama Rido Hasan meninggal dunia setelah ditusuk oleh rekannya di bagian leher belakang.

“Tersangka F kini dalam pengejaran,” kata Kompol Yohanes.

Pada awalnya tersangka telah  mendatangi korban yang sedang membereskan tempatnya bekerja di Indomart kemudian tersangka telah mengajak korban keluar saat itulah tersangka menusuk korban dengan pisau di bagian belakang leher.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

Salam hangat dari Jepun Bali Car Rental, Jepun Bali Car Rental adalah penyedia jasa sewa mobil murah terbaik di Bali. Spesial

Salam hangat dari Jepun Bali Car Rental,

Jepun Bali Car Rental adalah penyedia jasa sewa mobil murah terbaik di Bali. Spesialisasi kami adalah untuk dapat menyediakan pelayanan transportasi sewa mobil dengan sistem point-to-point Airport, Hotel, dan personal atau group transportasi, baik dalam rangka perjalanan wisata ataupun untuk tujuan Bisinis di Bali.

Supir-supir profesional kami dari Jepun Bali car Rental dengan senang hati akan mengantarkan anda ke tujuan untuk berbagai kerperluan seperti executive meeting, outing perusahaan, atau pun untuk berwisata.

Jepun Bali Car Rental dengan cepat membangun reputasinya dalam bidang usaha transportasi khususnya dalam bidang sewa mobil di Bali. Anda juga dapat menghubungi kami melalui telephone ataupun e-mail untuk dapat mengalami komitmen kami untuk selalu memberikan pelayanan yang terbaik, dan anda pun akan mengerti mengapa client-client kami mempercayakan pilihannya kepada kami dalam hal jasa transportasi sewa mobil di Bali.
 
Jepun Bali Car Rental sangat mengerti bahwa waktu dari client kami adalah hal yang sangat penting. Sebagai penyedia sarana transportasi sewa mobil profesional di Bali, team kami akan memastikan anda akan sampai ke tujuan dengan nyaman, aman dan tepat waktu.

Sebagai penyedia sarana transportasi sewa mobil, Jepun Bali Car Rental menawarkan jenis-jenis pelayanan sebagai berikut :

    Pelayanan penjeputan dan pengembalian mobil di Airport ataupun Hotel
    Sewa mobil untuk di kemudikan sendiri (tanpa supir)
    Jasa sewa mobil dalam jangka waktu pendek dan panjang
    Paket sewa mobil untuk personal atau group
    Pembebasan biaya atas pengantaran dan pengembalian mobil yang di sewa
    Jasa sewa mobil dengan supir yang profesional dan berpengalaman dalam jasa layanan transportasi personal dan eksekutif
    Charter Bus Pariwisata

Mengapa memilih jasa sewa mobil dari Jepun Bali Car Rental ?

    Jepun Bali Car Rental adalah mitra anda yang dapat dipercaya
    Kepuasan anda adalah prioritas utama dari Jepun Bali Car Rental
    Jepun Bali Car Rental memberikan pelayanan yang aman dan terjamin
    Jepun Bali Car Rental selalu menyediakan model mobil - mobil terbaru dengan kondisi mobil yang terawat secara teratur
    Jepun Bali Car Rental menyediakan fasilitas mobil pengganti apabila terjadi kerusakan atau kecelakaan
    Mobil-mobil yang kami sewakan telah di asuransikan
    Jepun Bali Car Rental telah terdaftar di institusi publik

Silahkan anda membuka halaman Harga Sewa Mobil kami untuk mengetahui berbagai jenis type mobil yang kami tawarkan

saco-indonesia.com, Cuaca ekstrem juga telah melanda Eropa, termasuk Inggris. Di negerinya Ratu Elizabeth itu kini juga sedang d

saco-indonesia.com, Cuaca ekstrem juga telah melanda Eropa, termasuk Inggris. Di negerinya Ratu Elizabeth itu kini juga sedang dilanda banjir besar.

Met Office (officially the Meteorological Office) atau Badan Meteorologinya Inggris telah menarik kesimpulan bahwa cuaca di eropa telah terpengaruh dari cuaca ekstrem dari belahan bumi lain, termasuk Indonesia.

Menurut Met Office, cuaca ekstrem ini telah terjadi di dua kawasan, yakni Atlantik dan Pasifik. Cuaca buruk di Atlantik telah dipengaruhi oleh pola perubahan awan di atas Samudera Pasifik dan Amerika Utara.

Kondisi itu juga erat hubungannya dengan munculnya badai di Inggris selama bulan Desember dan Januari tahun ini.

Met Office telah melanjutkan, ada perubahan besar arah angin di Pasifik yang telah didorong oleh pola peningkatan curah hujan di Indonesia dan kawasan tropis di Pasifik Barat.

"Terutama dipengaruhi peningkatan suhu laut yang semakin tinggi dan meningkat di atas normal."


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

Kami penyedia jasa sewa notebook/laptop dan sewa komputer dengan memusatkan diri untuk bisa menjadi partner yang bisa diandalkan

Kami penyedia jasa sewa notebook/laptop dan sewa komputer dengan memusatkan diri untuk bisa menjadi partner yang bisa diandalkan oleh masyarakat Indonesia dalam perihal sewa notebook dan komputer.

Sesuai slogan kami “kecewaan pelanggan adalah hal nomor satu yang dihindari, kepuasan Pelanggan telah menjadi satu-satunya acuan, serta tujuan .”maka kami juga akan memacu kinerja menyediakan sewa notebook dan komputer untuk selalu memberikan yang terbaik untuk Anda.

Adapun notebook/laptop yang kami sewa-kan dengan bermacam-macam merk Notebook seperti Acer, Toshiba, Dell, Lenovo, Goodwin, Hasee, dan lain-lain yang tentunya sesuai kebutuhan IT untuk Saat ini dengan Spesifikasi,Notebook Intel Core2uo, Notebook Intel Corei3, Notebook Intel Corei5, Notebook Intel Corei7 Dengan Hardisk dan RAM yang bervariasi , Menyesuaikan kebutuhan customer.

Percayakan sewa notebook/Laptop dan sewa Komputer anda pada kami,
karena :

    Tersedia Notebook/laptop dan komputer dengan Jumlah besar

    Notebook/laptop dan komputer berbagai merk

    Perangkat Notebook/laptop dan komputer yang up to date

    Berpengalaman sewa notebook/laptop dan komputer bertahun-tahun

    Terima order sewa skala kecil & Order sewa skala Besar

    Harga sewa yang murah Serta Service memuaskan.

Joseph Lechleider

Mr. Lechleider helped invent DSL technology, which enabled phone companies to offer high-speed web access over their infrastructure of copper wires.

Ms. Pryor, who served more than two decades in the State Department, was the author of well-regarded biographies of the founder of the American Red Cross and the Confederate commander.

The career criminals in genre novels don’t have money problems. If they need some, they just go out and steal it. But such financial transactions can backfire, which is what happened back in 2004 when the Texas gang in Michael

THE WRITERS ASHLEY AND JAQUAVIS COLEMAN know the value of a good curtain-raiser. The couple have co-authored dozens of novels, and they like to start them with a bang: a headlong action sequence, a blast of violence or sex that rocks readers back on their heels. But the Colemans concede they would be hard-pressed to dream up anything more gripping than their own real-life opening scene.

In the summer of 2001, JaQuavis Coleman was a 16-year-old foster child in Flint, Mich., the former auto-manufacturing mecca that had devolved, in the wake of General Motors’ plant closures, into one of the country’s most dangerous cities, with a decimated economy and a violent crime rate more than three times the national average. When JaQuavis was 8, social services had removed him from his mother’s home. He spent years bouncing between foster families. At 16, JaQuavis was also a businessman: a crack dealer with a network of street-corner peddlers in his employ.

One day that summer, JaQuavis met a fellow dealer in a parking lot on Flint’s west side. He was there to make a bulk sale of a quarter-brick, or “nine-piece” — a nine-ounce parcel of cocaine, with a street value of about $11,000. In the middle of the transaction, JaQuavis heard the telltale chirp of a walkie-talkie. His customer, he now realized, was an undercover policeman. JaQuavis jumped into his car and spun out onto the road, with two unmarked police cars in pursuit. He didn’t want to get into a high-speed chase, so he whipped his car into a church parking lot and made a run for it, darting into an alleyway behind a row of small houses, where he tossed the quarter-brick into some bushes. When JaQuavis reached the small residential street on the other side of the houses, he was greeted by the police, who handcuffed him and went to search behind the houses where, they told him, they were certain he had ditched the drugs. JaQuavis had been dealing since he was 12, had amassed more than $100,000 and had never been arrested. Now, he thought: It’s over.

But when the police looked in the bushes, they couldn’t find any cocaine. They interrogated JaQuavis, who denied having ever possessed or sold drugs. They combed the backyard alley some more. After an hour of fruitless efforts, the police were forced to unlock the handcuffs and release their suspect.

JaQuavis was baffled by the turn of events until the next day, when he received a phone call. The previous afternoon, a 15-year-old girl had been sitting in her home on the west side of Flint when she heard sirens. She looked out of the window of her bedroom, and watched a young man throw a package in the bushes behind her house. She recognized him. He was a high school classmate — a handsome, charismatic boy whom she had admired from afar. The girl crept outside and grabbed the bundle, which she hid in her basement. “I have something that belongs to you,” Ashley Snell told JaQuavis Coleman when she reached him by phone. “You wanna come over here and pick it up?”

Photo
Three of the nearly 50 works of urban fiction published by the Colemans over the last decade, often featuring drug deals, violence, sex and a brash kind of feminism.Credit Marko Metzinger

In the Colemans’ first novel, “Dirty Money” (2005), they told a version of this story. The outline was the same: the drug deal gone bad, the dope chucked in the bushes, the fateful phone call. To the extent that the authors took poetic license, it was to tone down the meet-cute improbability of the true-life events. In “Dirty Money,” the girl, Anari, and the crack dealer, Maurice, circle each other warily for a year or so before coupling up. But the facts of Ashley and JaQuavis’s romance outstripped pulp fiction. They fell in love more or less at first sight, moved into their own apartment while still in high school and were married in 2008. “We were together from the day we met,” Ashley says. “I don’t think we’ve spent more than a week apart in total over the past 14 years.”

That partnership turned out to be creative and entrepreneurial as well as romantic. Over the past decade, the Colemans have published nearly 50 books, sometimes as solo writers, sometimes under pseudonyms, but usually as collaborators with a byline that has become a trusted brand: “Ashley & JaQuavis.” They are marquee stars of urban fiction, or street lit, a genre whose inner-city settings and lurid mix of crime, sex and sensationalism have earned it comparisons to gangsta rap. The emergence of street lit is one of the big stories in recent American publishing, a juggernaut that has generated huge sales by catering to a readership — young, black and, for the most part, female — that historically has been ill-served by the book business. But the genre is also widely maligned. Street lit is subject to a kind of triple snobbery: scorned by literati who look down on genre fiction generally, ignored by a white publishing establishment that remains largely indifferent to black books and disparaged by African-American intellectuals for poor writing, coarse values and trafficking in racial stereotypes.

But if a certain kind of cultural prestige is shut off to the Colemans, they have reaped other rewards. They’ve built a large and loyal fan base, which gobbles up the new Ashley & JaQuavis titles that arrive every few months. Many of those books are sold at street-corner stands and other off-the-grid venues in African-American neighborhoods, a literary gray market that doesn’t register a blip on best-seller tallies. Yet the Colemans’ most popular series now regularly crack the trade fiction best-seller lists of The New York Times and Publishers Weekly. For years, the pair had no literary agent; they sold hundreds of thousands of books without banking a penny in royalties. Still, they have earned millions of dollars, almost exclusively from cash-for-manuscript deals negotiated directly with independent publishing houses. In short, though little known outside of the world of urban fiction, the Colemans are one of America’s most successful literary couples, a distinction they’ve achieved, they insist, because of their work’s gritty authenticity and their devotion to a primal literary virtue: the power of the ripping yarn.

“When you read our books, you’re gonna realize: ‘Ashley & JaQuavis are storytellers,’ ” says Ashley. “Our tales will get your heart pounding.”

THE COLEMANS’ HOME BASE — the cottage from which they operate their cottage industry — is a spacious four-bedroom house in a genteel suburb about 35 miles north of downtown Detroit. The house is plush, but when I visited this past winter, it was sparsely appointed. The couple had just recently moved in, and had only had time to fully furnish the bedroom of their 4-year-old son, Quaye.

In conversation, Ashley and JaQuavis exude both modesty and bravado: gratitude for their good fortune and bootstrappers’ pride in having made their own luck. They talk a lot about their time in the trenches, the years they spent as a drug dealer and “ride-or-die girl” tandem. In Flint they learned to “grind hard.” Writing, they say, is merely a more elevated kind of grind.

“Instead of hitting the block like we used to, we hit the laptops,” says Ashley. “I know what every word is worth. So while I’m writing, I’m like: ‘Okay, there’s a hundred dollars. There’s a thousand dollars. There’s five thousand dollars.’ ”

They maintain a rigorous regimen. They each try to write 5,000 words per day, five days a week. The writers stagger their shifts: JaQuavis goes to bed at 7 p.m. and wakes up early, around 3 or 4 in the morning, to work while his wife and child sleep. Ashley writes during the day, often in libraries or at Starbucks.

They divide the labor in other ways. Chapters are divvied up more or less equally, with tasks assigned according to individual strengths. (JaQuavis typically handles character development. Ashley loves writing murder scenes.) The results are stitched together, with no editorial interference from one author in the other’s text. The real work, they contend, is the brainstorming. The Colemans spend weeks mapping out their plot-driven books — long conversations that turn into elaborate diagrams on dry-erase boards. “JaQuavis and I are so close, it makes the process real easy,” says Ashley. “Sometimes when I’m thinking of something, a plot point, he’ll say it out loud, and I’m like: ‘Wait — did I say that?’ ”

Their collaboration developed by accident, and on the fly. Both were bookish teenagers. Ashley read lots of Judy Blume and John Grisham; JaQuavis liked Shakespeare, Richard Wright and “Atlas Shrugged.” (Their first official date was at a Borders bookstore, where Ashley bought “The Coldest Winter Ever,” the Sister Souljah novel often credited with kick-starting the contemporary street-lit movement.) In 2003, Ashley, then 17, was forced to terminate an ectopic pregnancy. She was bedridden for three weeks, and to provide distraction and boost her spirits, JaQuavis challenged his girlfriend to a writing contest. “She just wasn’t talking. She was laying in bed. I said, ‘You know what? I bet you I could write a better book than you.’ My wife is real competitive. So I said, ‘Yo, all right, $500 bet.’ And I saw her eyes spark, like, ‘What?! You can’t write no better book than me!’ So I wrote about three chapters. She wrote about three chapters. Two days later, we switched.”

The result, hammered out in a few days, would become “Dirty Money.” Two years later, when Ashley and JaQuavis were students at Ferris State University in Western Michigan, they sold the manuscript to Urban Books, a street-lit imprint founded by the best-selling author Carl Weber. At the time, JaQuavis was still making his living selling drugs. When Ashley got the phone call informing her that their book had been bought, she assumed they’d hit it big, and flushed more than $10,000 worth of cocaine down the toilet. Their advance was a mere $4,000.

Photo
The roots of street lit, found in the midcentury detective novels of Chester Himes and the ‘60s and ‘70s “ghetto fiction” of Iceberg Slim and Donald Goines.Credit Marko Metzinger

Those advances would soon increase, eventually reaching five and six figures. The Colemans built their career, JaQuavis says, in a manner that made sense to him as a veteran dope peddler: by flooding the street with product. From the start, they were prolific, churning out books at a rate of four or five a year. Their novels made their way into stores; the now-defunct chain Waldenbooks, which had stores in urban areas typically bypassed by booksellers, was a major engine of the street-lit market. But Ashley and JaQuavis took advantage of distribution channels established by pioneering urban fiction authors such as Teri Woods and Vickie Stringer, and a network of street-corner tables, magazine stands, corner shops and bodegas. Like rappers who establish their bona fides with gray-market mixtapes, street-lit authors use this system to circumnavigate industry gatekeepers, bringing their work straight to the genre’s core readership. But urban fiction has other aficionados, in less likely places. “Our books are so popular in the prison system,” JaQuavis says. “We’re banned in certain penitentiaries. Inmates fight over the books — there are incidents, you know? I have loved ones in jail, and they’re like: ‘Yo, your books can’t come in here. It’s against the rules.’ ”

The appeal of the Colemans’ work is not hard to fathom. The books are formulaic and taut; they deliver the expected goods efficiently and exuberantly. The titles telegraph the contents: “Diary of a Street Diva,” “Kiss Kiss, Bang Bang,” “Murderville.” The novels serve up a stream of explicit sex and violence in a slangy, tangy, profane voice. In Ashley & JaQuavis’s books people don’t get killed: they get “popped,” “laid out,” get their “cap twisted back.” The smut is constant, with emphasis on the earthy, sticky, olfactory particulars. Romance novel clichés — shuddering orgasms, heroic carnal feats, superlative sexual skill sets — are rendered in the Colemans’ punchy patois.

Subtlety, in other words, isn’t Ashley & JaQuavis’s forte. But their books do have a grainy specificity. In “The Cartel” (2008), the first novel in the Colemans’ best-selling saga of a Miami drug syndicate, they catch the sights and smells of a crack workshop in a housing project: the nostril-stinging scent of cocaine and baking soda bubbling on stovetops; the teams of women, stripped naked except for hospital masks so they can’t pilfer the merchandise, “cutting up the cooked coke on the round wood table.” The subject matter is dark, but the Colemans’ tone is not quite noir. Even in the grimmest scenes, the mood is high-spirited, with the writers palpably relishing the lewd and gory details: the bodies writhing in boudoirs and crumpling under volleys of bullets, the geysers of blood and other bodily fluids.

The luridness of street lit has made it a flashpoint, inciting controversy reminiscent of the hip-hop culture wars of the 1980s and ’90s. But the street-lit debate touches deeper historical roots, reviving decades-old arguments in black literary circles about the mandate to uplift the race and present wholesome images of African-Americans. In 1928, W. E. B. Du Bois slammed the “licentiousness” of “Home to Harlem,” Claude McKay’s rollicking novel of Harlem nightlife. McKay’s book, Du Bois wrote, “for the most part nauseates me, and after the dirtier parts of its filth I feel distinctly like taking a bath.” Similar sentiments have greeted 21st-century street lit. In a 2006 New York Times Op-Ed essay, the journalist and author Nick Chiles decried “the sexualization and degradation of black fiction.” African-American bookstores, Chiles complained, are “overrun with novels that . . . appeal exclusively to our most prurient natures — as if these nasty books were pairing off back in the stockrooms like little paperback rabbits and churning out even more graphic offspring that make Ralph Ellison books cringe into a dusty corner.”

Copulating paperbacks aside, it’s clear that the street-lit debate is about more than literature, touching on questions of paternalism versus populism, and on middle-class anxieties about the black underclass. “It’s part and parcel of black elites’ efforts to define not only a literary tradition, but a racial politics,” said Kinohi Nishikawa, an assistant professor of English and African-American Studies at Princeton University. “There has always been a sense that because African-Americans’ opportunities to represent themselves are so limited in the first place, any hint of criminality or salaciousness would necessarily be a knock on the entire racial politics. One of the pressing debates about African-American literature today is: If we can’t include writers like Ashley & JaQuavis, to what extent is the foundation of our thinking about black literature faulty? Is it just a literature for elites? Or can it be inclusive, bringing urban fiction under the purview of our umbrella term ‘African-American literature’?”

Defenders of street lit note that the genre has a pedigree: a tradition of black pulp fiction that stretches from Chester Himes, the midcentury author of hardboiled Harlem detective stories, to the 1960s and ’70s “ghetto fiction” of Iceberg Slim and Donald Goines, to the current wave of urban fiction authors. Others argue for street lit as a social good, noting that it attracts a large audience that might otherwise never read at all. Scholars like Nishikawa link street lit to recent studies showing increased reading among African-Americans. A 2014 Pew Research Center report found that a greater percentage of black Americans are book readers than whites or Latinos.

For their part, the Colemans place their work in the broader black literary tradition. “You have Maya Angelou, Alice Walker, James Baldwin — all of these traditional black writers, who wrote about the struggles of racism, injustice, inequality,” says Ashley. “We’re writing about the struggle as it happens now. It’s just a different struggle. I’m telling my story. I’m telling the struggle of a black girl from Flint, Michigan, who grew up on welfare.”

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The Colemans in their new four-bedroom house in the northern suburbs of Detroit.Credit Courtesy of Ashley and JaQuavis Coleman

Perhaps there is a high-minded case to be made for street lit. But the virtues of Ashley & JaQuavis’s work are more basic. Their novels do lack literary polish. The writing is not graceful; there are passages of clunky exposition and sex scenes that induce guffaws and eye rolls. But the pleasure quotient is high. The books flaunt a garish brand of feminism, with women characters cast not just as vixens, but also as gangsters — cold-blooded killers, “murder mamas.” The stories are exceptionally well-plotted. “The Cartel” opens by introducing its hero, the crime boss Carter Diamond; on page 9, a gunshot spatters Diamond’s brain across the interior of a police cruiser. The book then flashes back seven years and begins to hurtle forward again — a bullet train, whizzing readers through shifting alliances, romantic entanglements and betrayals, kidnappings, shootouts with Haitian and Dominican gangsters, and a cliffhanger closing scene that leaves the novel’s heroine tied to a chair in a basement, gruesomely tortured to the edge of death. Ashley & JaQuavis’s books are not Ralph Ellison, certainly, but they build up quite a head of steam. They move.

The Colemans are moving themselves these days. They recently signed a deal with St. Martin’s Press, which will bring out the next installment in the “Cartel” series as well as new solo series by both writers. The St. Martin’s deal is both lucrative and legitimizing — a validation of Ashley and JaQuavis’s work by one of publishing’s most venerable houses. The Colemans’ ambitions have grown, as well. A recent trilogy, “Murderville,” tackles human trafficking and the blood-diamond industry in West Africa, with storylines that sweep from Sierra Leone to Mexico to Los Angeles. Increasingly, Ashley & JaQuavis are leaning on research — traveling to far-flung settings and hitting the books in the libraries — and spending less time mining their own rough-and-tumble past.

But Flint remains a source of inspiration. One evening not long ago, JaQuavis led me on a tour of his hometown: a popular roadside bar; the parking lot where he met the undercover cop for the ill-fated drug deal; Ashley’s old house, the site of his almost-arrest. He took me to a ramshackle vehicle repair shop on Flint’s west side, where he worked as a kid, washing cars. He showed me a bathroom at the rear of the garage, where, at age 12, he sneaked away to inspect the first “boulder” of crack that he ever sold. A spray-painted sign on the garage wall, which JaQuavis remembered from his time at the car wash, offered words of warning:

WHAT EVERY YOUNG MAN SHOULD KNOW
ABOUT USING A GUN:
MURDER . . . 30 Years
ARMED ROBBERY . . . 15 Years
ASSAULT . . . 15 Years
RAPE . . . 20 Years
POSSESSION . . . 5 Years
JACKING . . . 20 YEARS

“We still love Flint, Michigan,” JaQuavis says. “It’s so seedy, so treacherous. But there’s some heart in this city. This is where it all started, selling books out the box. In the days when we would get those little $40,000 advances, they’d send us a couple boxes of books for free. We would hit the streets to sell our books, right out of the car trunk. It was a hustle. It still is.”

One old neighborhood asset that the Colemans have not shaken off is swagger. “My wife is the best female writer in the game,” JaQuavis told me. “I believe I’m the best male writer in the game. I’m sleeping next to the best writer in the world. And she’s doing the same.”

 

WASHINGTON — A decade after emergency trailers meant to shelter Hurricane Katrina victims instead caused burning eyes, sore throats and other more serious ailments, the Environmental Protection Agency is on the verge of regulating the culprit: formaldehyde, a chemical that can be found in commonplace things like clothes and furniture.

But an unusual assortment of players, including furniture makers, the Chinese government, Republicans from states with a large base of furniture manufacturing and even some Democrats who championed early regulatory efforts, have questioned the E.P.A. proposal. The sustained opposition has held sway, as the agency is now preparing to ease key testing requirements before it releases the landmark federal health standard.

The E.P.A.’s five-year effort to adopt this rule offers another example of how industry opposition can delay and hamper attempts by the federal government to issue regulations, even to control substances known to be harmful to human health.

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Document: The Formaldehyde Fight

Formaldehyde is a known carcinogen that can also cause respiratory ailments like asthma, but the potential of long-term exposure to cause cancers like myeloid leukemia is less well understood.

The E.P.A.’s decision would be the first time that the federal government has regulated formaldehyde inside most American homes.

“The stakes are high for public health,” said Tom Neltner, senior adviser for regulatory affairs at the National Center for Healthy Housing, who has closely monitored the debate over the rules. “What we can’t have here is an outcome that fails to confront the health threat we all know exists.”

The proposal would not ban formaldehyde — commonly used as an ingredient in wood glue in furniture and flooring — but it would impose rules that prevent dangerous levels of the chemical’s vapors from those products, and would set testing standards to ensure that products sold in the United States comply with those limits. The debate has sharpened in the face of growing concern about the safety of formaldehyde-treated flooring imported from Asia, especially China.

What is certain is that a lot of money is at stake: American companies sell billions of dollars’ worth of wood products each year that contain formaldehyde, and some argue that the proposed regulation would impose unfair costs and restrictions.

Determined to block the agency’s rule as proposed, these industry players have turned to the White House, members of Congress and top E.P.A. officials, pressing them to roll back the testing requirements in particular, calling them redundant and too expensive.

“There are potentially over a million manufacturing jobs that will be impacted if the proposed rule is finalized without changes,” wrote Bill Perdue, the chief lobbyist at the American Home Furnishings Alliance, a leading critic of the testing requirements in the proposed regulation, in one letter to the E.P.A.

Industry opposition helped create an odd alignment of forces working to thwart the rule. The White House moved to strike out key aspects of the proposal. Subsequent appeals for more changes were voiced by players as varied as Senator Barbara Boxer, Democrat of California, and Senator Roger Wicker, Republican of Mississippi, as well as furniture industry lobbyists.

Hurricane Katrina in 2005 helped ignite the public debate over formaldehyde, after the deadly storm destroyed or damaged hundreds of thousands of homes along the Gulf of Mexico, forcing families into temporary trailers provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

The displaced storm victims quickly began reporting respiratory problems, burning eyes and other issues, and tests then confirmed high levels of formaldehyde fumes leaking into the air inside the trailers, which in many cases had been hastily constructed.

Public health advocates petitioned the E.P.A. to issue limits on formaldehyde in building materials and furniture used in homes, given that limits already existed for exposure in workplaces. But three years after the storm, only California had issued such limits.

Industry groups like the American Chemistry Council have repeatedly challenged the science linking formaldehyde to cancer, a position championed by David Vitter, the Republican senator from Louisiana, who is a major recipient of chemical industry campaign contributions, and whom environmental groups have mockingly nicknamed “Senator Formaldehyde.”

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Formaldehyde in Laminate Flooring

In laminate flooring, formaldehyde is used as a bonding agent in the fiberboard (or other composite wood) core layer and may also be used in glues that bind layers together. Concerns were raised in March when certain laminate flooring imported from China was reported to contain levels of formaldehyde far exceeding the limit permitted by California.

Typical

laminate

flooring

CLEAR FINISH LAYER

Often made of melamine resin

PATTERN LAYER

Paper printed to resemble wood,

or a thin wood veneer

GLUE

Layers may be bound using

formaldehyde-based glues

CORE LAYER

Fiberboard or other

composite, formed using

formaldehyde-based adhesives

BASE LAYER

Moisture-resistant vapor barrier

What is formaldehyde?

Formaldehyde is a common chemical used in many industrial and household products as an adhesive, bonding agent or preservative. It is classified as a volatile organic compound. The term volatile means that, at room temperature, formaldehyde will vaporize, or become a gas. Products made with formaldehyde tend to release this gas into the air. If breathed in large quantities, it may cause health problems.

WHERE IT IS COMMONLY FOUND

POTENTIAL HEALTH RISKS

Pressed-wood and composite wood products

Wallpaper and paints

Spray foam insulation used in construction

Commercial wood floor finishes

Crease-resistant fabrics

In cigarette smoke, or in the fumes from combustion of other materials, including wood, oil and gasoline.

Exposure to formaldehyde in sufficient amounts may cause eye, throat or skin irritation, allergic reactions, and respiratory problems like coughing, wheezing or asthma.

Long-term exposure to high levels has been associated with cancer in humans and laboratory animals.

Exposure to formaldehyde may affect some people more severely than others.

By 2010, public health advocates and some industry groups secured bipartisan support in Congress for legislation that ordered the E.P.A. to issue federal rules that largely mirrored California’s restrictions. At the time, concerns were rising over the growing number of lower-priced furniture imports from Asia that might include contaminated products, while also hurting sales of American-made products.

Maneuvering began almost immediately after the E.P.A. prepared draft rules to formally enact the new standards.

White House records show at least five meetings in mid-2012 with industry executives — kitchen cabinet makers, chemical manufacturers, furniture trade associations and their lobbyists, like Brock R. Landry, of the Venable law firm. These parties, along with Senator Vitter’s office, appealed to top administration officials, asking them to intervene to roll back the E.P.A. proposal.

The White House Office of Management and Budget, which reviews major federal regulations before they are adopted, apparently agreed. After the White House review, the E.P.A. “redlined” many of the estimates of the monetary benefits that would be gained by reductions in related health ailments, like asthma and fertility issues, documents reviewed by The New York Times show.

As a result, the estimated benefit of the proposed rule dropped to $48 million a year, from as much as $278 million a year. The much-reduced amount deeply weakened the agency’s justification for the sometimes costly new testing that would be required under the new rules, a federal official involved in the effort said.

“It’s a redlining blood bath,” said Lisa Heinzerling, a Georgetown University Law School professor and a former E.P.A. official, using the Washington phrase to describe when language is stricken from a proposed rule. “Almost the entire discussion of these potential benefits was excised.”

Senator Vitter’s staff was pleased.

“That’s a huge difference,” said Luke Bolar, a spokesman for Mr. Vitter, of the reduced estimated financial benefits, saying the change was “clearly highlighting more mismanagement” at the E.P.A.

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The review’s outcome galvanized opponents in the furniture industry. They then targeted a provision that mandated new testing of laminated wood, a cheaper alternative to hardwood. (The California standard on which the law was based did not require such testing.)

But E.P.A. scientists had concluded that these laminate products — millions of which are sold annually in the United States — posed a particular risk. They said that when thin layers of wood, also known as laminate or veneer, are added to furniture or flooring in the final stages of manufacturing, the resulting product can generate dangerous levels of fumes from often-used formaldehyde-based glues.

Industry executives, outraged by what they considered an unnecessary and financially burdensome level of testing, turned every lever within reach to get the requirement removed. It would be particularly onerous, they argued, for small manufacturers that would have to repeatedly interrupt their work to do expensive new testing. The E.P.A. estimated that the expanded requirements for laminate products would cost the furniture industry tens of millions of dollars annually, while the industry said that the proposed rule over all would cost its 7,000 American manufacturing facilities over $200 million each year.

“A lot of people don’t seem to appreciate what a lot of these requirements do to a small operation,” said Dick Titus, executive vice president of the Kitchen Cabinet Manufacturers Association, whose members are predominantly small businesses. “A 10-person shop, for example, just really isn’t equipped to handle that type of thing.”

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Becky Gillette wants strong regulation of formaldehyde. Credit Beth Hall for The New York Times

Big industry players also weighed in. Executives from companies including La-Z-Boy, Hooker Furniture and Ashley Furniture all flew to Washington for a series of meetings with the offices of lawmakers including House Speaker John Boehner, Republican of Ohio, and about a dozen other lawmakers, asking several of them to sign a letter prepared by the industry to press the E.P.A. to back down, according to an industry report describing the lobbying visit.

Within a matter of weeks, two letters — using nearly identical language — were sent by House and Senate lawmakers to the E.P.A. — with the industry group forwarding copies of the letters to the agency as well, and then posting them on its website.

The industry lobbyists also held their own meeting at E.P.A. headquarters, and they urged Jim Jones, who oversaw the rule-making process as the assistant administrator for the agency’s Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, to visit a North Carolina furniture manufacturing plant. According to the trade group, Mr. Jones told them that the visit had “helped the agency shift its thinking” about the rules and how laminated products should be treated.

The resistance was particularly intense from lawmakers like Mr. Wicker of Mississippi, whose state is home to major manufacturing plants owned by Ashley Furniture Industries, the world’s largest furniture maker, and who is one of the biggest recipients in Congress of donations from the industry’s trade association. Asked if the political support played a role, a spokesman for Mr. Wicker replied: “Thousands of Mississippians depend on the furniture manufacturing industry for their livelihoods. Senator Wicker is committed to defending all Mississippians from government overreach.”

Individual companies like Ikea also intervened, as did the Chinese government, which claimed that the new rule would create a “great barrier” to the import of Chinese products because of higher costs.

Perhaps the most surprising objection came from Senator Boxer, of California, a longtime environmental advocate, whose office questioned why the E.P.A.’s rule went further than her home state’s in seeking testing on laminated products. “We did not advocate an outcome, other than safety,” her office said in a statement about why the senator raised concerns. “We said ‘Take a look to see if you have it right.’ ”

Safety advocates say that tighter restrictions — like the ones Ms. Boxer and Mr. Wicker, along with Representative Doris Matsui, a California Democrat, have questioned — are necessary, particularly for products coming from China, where items as varied as toys and Christmas lights have been found to violate American safety standards.

While Mr. Neltner, the environmental advocate who has been most involved in the review process, has been open to compromise, he has pressed the E.P.A. not to back down entirely, and to maintain a requirement that laminators verify that their products are safe.

An episode of CBS’s “60 Minutes” in March brought attention to the issue when it accused Lumber Liquidators, the discount flooring retailer, of selling laminate products with dangerous levels of formaldehyde. The company has disputed the show’s findings and test methods, maintaining that its products are safe.

“People think that just because Congress passed the legislation five years ago, the problem has been fixed,” said Becky Gillette, who then lived in coastal Mississippi, in the area hit by Hurricane Katrina, and was among the first to notice a pattern of complaints from people living in the trailers. “Real people’s faces and names come up in front of me when I think of the thousands of people who could get sick if this rule is not done right.”

An aide to Ms. Matsui rejected any suggestion that she was bending to industry pressure.

“From the beginning the public health has been our No. 1 concern,” said Kyle J. Victor, an aide to Ms. Matsui.

But further changes to the rule are likely, agency officials concede, as they say they are searching for a way to reduce the cost of complying with any final rule while maintaining public health goals. The question is just how radically the agency will revamp the testing requirement for laminated products — if it keeps it at all.

“It’s not a secret to anybody that is the most challenging issue,” said Mr. Jones, the E.P.A. official overseeing the process, adding that the health consequences from formaldehyde are real. “We have to reduce those exposures so that people can live healthy lives and not have to worry about being in their homes.”

Mr. Napoleon was a self-taught musician whose career began in earnest with the orchestra led by Chico Marx of the Marx Brothers.

Mr. Bartoszewski was given honorary Israeli citizenship for his work to save Jews during World War II and later surprised even himself by being instrumental in reconciling Poland and Germany.

Mr. Pfaff was an international affairs columnist and author who found Washington’s intervention in world affairs often misguided.

As governor, Mr. Walker alienated Republicans and his fellow Democrats, particularly the Democratic powerhouse Richard J. Daley, the mayor of Chicago.