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Info Tempat Kursus Mesin CNC Murah di Sukarasa Bandung

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saco-indonesia.com, Aksi ayah bunuh anaka telah direkonstruksi di rumahnya Komplek Perumahan Bumi Citra Lestari (BCL) Jalan Arju

saco-indonesia.com, Aksi ayah bunuh anaka telah direkonstruksi di rumahnya Komplek Perumahan Bumi Citra Lestari (BCL) Jalan Arjuna X Blok B III, Desa Waluya, Cikarang Utara, Kamis(6/2) siang. Tersangka Epi Suhendar yang berusia 29 tahun , juga sempat tertegun dan enggan masuk ke rumah. Namun setelah 15 menit kemudian lelaki bertubuh tambun itu masuk ke rumah.

Dijaga ketat petugas, tersangka Epi telah melakukan 45 adegan dengan lancar. Mulai dari aksi keji membunuh anaknya Ikhsan,3, hingga melukai istrinya Ny Cucun, yang berusia 23 tahun . Tiga saksi telah dihadirkan yakni Andi, Haris dan Dede. Sedangkan Ny Cucun, istri korban juga tak bisa hadir lantaran masih trauma.

Warga setempat juga tak menyangka dengan aksi keji yang dilakukan Epi. Sebab selama ini keluarga tersebut selalu baik-baik saja. Warga hanya bisa mengelus dada saat menyaksikan tersangka masuk dan keluar rumah yang menjadi tragedi berdarah itu.

Kanitserse Polsek Cikarang Utara AKP Bobby Kusumawardana juga mengatakan tersangka mengaku tidak sadar melakukan aksi keji itu. Namun kejiwaan tersangka dinyatakan normal.

Diberitakan sebelumnya, Ikhsan yang berusia 3 tahun , telah dibunuh ayah kandungnya yang takut dipecat lantaran tak dapat memenuhi target dalam bekerja di sebuah perusahaan paralon. Tersangka Epi pun kemudian merencanakan pembunuhan pada anak dan istri serta dirinya sndiri. Namun upaya itu gagal. Sang anak meregang nyawa setelah dihujani 18 tusukan, sementara istrinya Ny Cucun sekarat dihujani 10 tusukan. tersangka sendiri gagal saat akan bunuh diri


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

Anda sedang mencari rumah strategis di wilayah bekasi utara, dengan akses jalan yang mudah di tempuh .Di Jual Rumah Di Wilayah B

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Ayam kampung atau biasa disebut ayam Buras (Bukan Ras) merupakan jenis ayam yang sudah yang banyak di ternakan secara tradisiona

Ayam kampung atau biasa disebut ayam Buras (Bukan Ras) merupakan jenis ayam yang sudah yang banyak di ternakan secara tradisional ¬ di pedesaana. Sebutan ayam kampung adalah merujuk kepada ayam yang memang kenyataanya banyak ditemukan di kampung-kampung, walaupun memang ada juga Beternak ayam Kampung di Perkotaan. Jenis ayam kampung cukup beragam, tetapi pada umumnya memiliki sifat yang relatif sama yaitu lebih kebal/tahan terhadap penyakit dibandingkan dengan ayam ras . Ayam kampung juga lebih tahan terhadap gejala Stress. Dan itulah salah-satu keunggulan Ayam kampung, disamping masih banyak lagi keunggulan-keunggulan ayam kampung (Ayam Ras) dibandingkan dengan ayam ras. Beberapa keunggulan ayam kampung dibandingkan dengan ayam ras. Ayam kampong lebih kebal terhadap serangan berbagai penyakit Lebih tahan stress, tidak terganggu dengan suasana lingkungan yang hiruk pikuk. Memiliki adaptasi yang tinggi terhadap perubahan lingkungan . Lebih toleran terhadap perubahan cuaca Harga jual lebih tinggi disbanding ayam ras Telurnya di anggap lebih berkhasiat, sehingga harga jual telurnya lebih mahal Dagingnya lebih enak dan gurih di banding ayam potong (ras) Permintaan akan kebutuhan ayam kampung cukup tinggi Bangsa-bangsa ayam kampung sampai saat ini tidak diketahui dengan pasti, tetapi ayam hutan (gallus varius linnaeus) diperkirakan sebagai nenek moyang ayam kampung. Hal ini terlihat dari sifat-sifat dan morfologi ayam kampung yang mempunyai kemiripan dengan ayam hutan. Warna bulu ayam kampung sangat beragam, yaitu mulai dari hitam, putih, kekuningan, merah tua,atau kombinasi, dari warna-warna tersebut. Pemeliharaan ternak ayam buras di Pandaisikek Pemilihan Bibit Ternak. Pemilihan bibit ayam kampung secara umum juga sama dengan ayam ras, yaitu dipilih bibit dari induk yang mempunyai kemampuan produksi tinggi, misalnya dari kemampuan bertelurnya, sifat tumbuhnya dan mempunyai performance yang sehat, lincah, tidak cacat, mata cerah, tidak ada kotoran yang menempel dibubur, serta bulu tampak baik dan mengembang. Kandang Ternak Ayam Buras. Perkandangan untuk pemeliharaan ayam kampung sangat tergantung dari cara pemeliharaan itu sendiri. Pemeliharaan ayam secara ekstensif atau dilepas hanya memerlukan jenis perkandangan yang seadanya. Kandang hanya berfungsi untuk tidur pada malam hari. Jenis kandang atau pemeliharaan ternak ayam buras/ ternak ayam kampung secara semi intensif dibuat lebih baik dari kandang untuk pemeliharaan secara akstensif karena selain untuk tidur pada malam hari, kandang juga digunakan untuk melakukan aktifitas. Sementara kandang untuk pemeliharaan ayam kampung secara intensif perlu mendapatkan perhatian khusus. Kandang dapat dibuat seperti pada kandang ayam ras karena pada pemeliharaan ternak ayam buras/ ternak ayam kampung secara intensif, ayam kampung akan dipelihara secara terus menerus didalam sehingga kandang berfungsi sebagai tempat tinggal, aktifitas makan, minum, istirahat, dan berproduksi. Sistem kandang yang digunakan bisa sama dengan sistem-sistem kandang ayam ras petelur, yaitu sistem liter dan sistem sangkar. Kepadatan kandang juga perlu diperhatikan. Penggunaan wadah pakan dan minum juga sama dengan ayam petelur. Penempatan wadah dan pakan minuman juga sama yaitu ditempatkan secara berdekatan. Pemeliharaan ayam kampung juga bisa dilakukan secara ekstensif dan intensif. Pemeliharaan secara ekstensif adalah pemeliharaan dengan cara dilepas dan ayam dibiarkan berkeliaran mencari pakan sendiri. Pemeliharaan ini menghasilkan produksi yang rendah. Sementara pemeliharaan secara intensif yaitu dengan cara mengandangkan ayam. Kebutuhan ayam seperti meningkatkan produksi. Pada pemeliharaan secara tradisional, produksi telur rata-rata 30-40 butir per tahun. sementara dengan pemeliharaan intensif dapat meningkat menjadi 163 butir per 200 hari. Pakan Ayam Buras. Pada pemeliharaan ayam kampung secara intensif, pemberian pakan dapat dilakukan seperti pada ayam ras petelur. Namun karena kemampuan produksi ayam kampung terbatas tidak seperti ayam ras petelur. Pemberian pakannya bisa dicampur sendiri. Bahan pakan yang digunakan antara lain jagung giling, bekatul dan konsentrat jadi dan sayur-sayuran. Konversi pakan pada ayam kampung sekitar 4,9. Pemberian pakan dibedakan dalam pakan awal (starter), pertumbuhan (grower) dan masa bertelur (layer). Selain hasil ramuan sendiri, pakan yang diberikan pada ayam pedaging juga bisa berupa pakan jadi. Pencegahan Penyakit Ternak Ayam Buras. Pemeliharaan kesehatan pada ayam kampung tidak jauh beda dengan ayam ras, yaitu melalui program pembersihan kandang, perlengkapannya dan lingkungannya; sanitasi; serta hapus hama kandang. Penyakit yang sering menyerang ayam kampung yaitu new castle (NW), cronic deceaces (CRD) dan cacar. Hal-hal yang biasa dilakukan dalam pencegahan penyakit pada ayam kampung sebagai berikut: -¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ Hindarkan anak ayam dari perubahan cuaca, anak ayam dapat diberi tambahan vitamin karena pada kondisi ini, anak ayam mudah terserang penyakit. -¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ Memberikan vaksinasi ND secara teratur -¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ Berikan pakan yang cukup berkualitas -¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ Jaga kerbersihan, perlengkapan dan lingkup kandang -¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ Berikan obat bila perlu saja -¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ Berikan obat cacing dan antibiotik secara berkala Akan tetapi perlakuan-perlakuan tersebut di atas belumlah dilaksanakn oleh peternak ayam, hal ini disebabkan karena tujuan beternak ayam hanyalah sebagai usaha sampingan dan ada juga yang hanay sekedar hobby saja. Panen Ternak Ayam Buras. Hasil panen ayam kampung berupa telur dan daging. Dibandingkan ayam ras, telur dan daging ayam kampung yang mempunyai rasa yang lebih khas dan lebih disukai oleh konsumen. Produksi daging ayam kampung dapat dilakukan pada ayam dara atau ayam dara apkir. Ayam kampung bisa dijual dalam keadaan hidup atau karkas. Pembibitan pada ayam kampung. tidak seperti ayam ras yang dilakukan oleh breding farm. Pembibitan ayam kampung dilakukan secara alami oleh induk yang menetaskan telurnya sendiri atau secara penetasan buatan dengan menggunakan mesin tetes oleh peternak atau pengusaha peternakan. Lama penetasan telur ayam kampung sekitar 18 hari. Cara penetasan sama dengan ayam ras. (EC-1266).

Kami tawarkan kepada anda para penyuka baju. Dengan secara online, tentu saja transaksi akan lebih cepat dan mudah. Anda bisa ba

Kami tawarkan kepada anda para penyuka baju. Dengan secara online, tentu saja transaksi akan lebih cepat dan mudah. Anda bisa banyak menghemat keuangan anda untuk membeli sebuah baju. Silahkan perhatikan berikut ini untuk mendapatkan baju-baju kesukaan Anda. Grosir baju korea murah bisa Anda dapatkan di www.dhiyufashion.com dan untuk baju batik, ada pada yang jual baju batik Terakhir sampailah kepada penjual baju bola yang menjual pakaian baju bola - Semoga semuanya menjadi manfaat kepada Anda semua dalam mencari baju korea murah, baju batik dan baju bola.

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Sangat kurang lengkap jika seseorang yang menjajakan barang dagangannya melalui internt tetapi tidak memahami Mall di Jakarta. S

Sangat kurang lengkap jika seseorang yang menjajakan barang dagangannya melalui internt tetapi tidak memahami Mall di Jakarta. Supaya hal ini jangan sampai terjadi pada anda, berikut kami akan membagikan sebuah trik bagaimana Cara Meningkatkan Penjualan Online yang paling jitu dan paling ampuh dan layak untuk dicoba. Bintaro Xchange Mall memang belum lama di luncurkan, namun sampai detik ini Mall di Jakarta yang satu ini sudah cukup di kenal dan menarik perhatian, ehingga seperti yang kami katakan diatas bahwa Mall di Jakarta ini sudah menjadi ebuah icon penting bagi kawasan Bintaro Jaya. Dengan demikian Bintaro Xchange Mall dengan endirinya akan memberikan dampak positif baik itu bagi para pengunjungnya maupun untuk alam di sekitarnya, ingat selalu hutan adalah paru-paru dunia, sehingga kawasan yang hijau lestari akan sangat di butuhkan apalagi untuk i tengah perkotaan padat seperti sang Ibu Kota Jakarta. Untuk itulah, kami menganjurkan bagi anda semua untuk mampir di Bintaro Xchange Mall yang berdiri tegak tepat di sisi tol Bintaro-Pondok Indah ini. Anda akan mendapatkan taman yang hijau dan aneka kuliner yang akan memanjakan indera rasa anda. Mall di Jakarta, yang mungkin saja selama ini anda kenal sebagai tempat keramaian yang di bangun dengan konsep moderen, namun demikian yang kami tahu tentang Bintaro Xchange Mall berbeda dengan mall-mall yang lain yang hanya mengedepankan desain futuristik. Akan tetapi kawasan hijau juga menjadi sebuah acuan dalam pembangunan Bintaro Xchange Mall ini, sehingga hal ini tentu saja akan sangat berdampak baik terhadap lingkungan di sekitarnya. Anda bisa mengunjungi Bintaro Xchange Mall untuk keperluan berbelanja atau untuk memanjakan indra rasa anda dengan menikmati berbagai kuliner lezat di Bintaro Xchange Mall. Di akhir pekan Bintaro Xchange Mall akan memberikan layanan yang sedikit berbeda dari hari yang lainnya, dan ini anda patut mencobanya. Berikut ini kami menyajikan informasi yang selengkap-lengkapnya terkait dengan Bintaro Xchange Mall ini untuk anda semua yang telah menyempatkan dirinya untuk berkunjung ke blog kami. Harapan kami semoga saja berita yang kami angkat dengan topik Mall di Jakarta ini bisa membantu andauntuk mendapatkan informasi tentang hal tersebut secara jelas dan mudah untuk di pahami. Mungkin di suatu saat akan menjadi sebuah paradigma, kalau belum ke Bintaro Xchange Mall rasanya belum lengkap ke Jakarta sebagaimana sebuah paradigma yang melekat di benak para turis asing bahwa kalau belum berkunjung Bali rasanya belumkunjung ke Indonesia. Ada banyak sekali saat ini toko online dengan berbagai produk yang ditawarkannya di internet, seperti salah satunya Mall di Jakarta yang saat ini sedang booming. Anda bisa menemukan berbagai merk kamera di toko kamera murah yang satu ini, tersedia juga berbagai jenis aksesoris kamera untuk melengkapi kamera murah anda.

saco-indonesia.com, Pesepak Bola dari Brazil Neymar memiliki kecepatan lari yang cukup tinggi.

BARCELONA, Saco-Indonesia.com — Pesepak bola dari Brazil Neymar memiliki kecepatan lari yang cukup tinggi. Dia bisa mencapai kecepatan 34,7 kilometer per jam. Selain jago gocek, kelebihan ini bisa membuat Barcelona semakin tajam dan berbahaya.

Neymar selama ini sering dianggap sebagai "pemain terhormat" di Santos. Sebab, ia memerlukan perlakuan khusus pada fisik. Bahkan, yang menggambarkan dia sebagai "pemain terhormat" itu adalah ahli fisioterapi Santos, Luis Fernando de Barros, setelah melihat statistiknya.

Neymar diperlakukan secara hati-hati oleh Fernando. Demikian juga ahli fisioterapi timnas Brasil, Jose Luiz Runco, yang memperlakukannya dengan hati-hati. Ini untuk memastikan agar dia dalam kondisi fisik yang prima. Sebab, fisiknya memang agak spesifik.

Neymar memiliki tinggi 174 sentimeter. Namun, bobotnya hanya 60 kilogram. Oleh karenanya, jika tak diperlakukan secara hati-hati, dia rentan terkena cedera.

"Neymar fiber murni dan genetik. Dia benar-benar pemain terhormat," kata Fernando kepada surat kabar Spanyol, El Mundo Deportivo.

Sejak 2009, pemain 21 tahun itu sudah bermain di 277 pertandingan, baik untuk Santos maupun timnas Brasil. Dia membutuhkan supervisi medis yang ketat untuk mengurangi risiko cedera karena kondisi fisik bawaannya.

Meski begitu, hal itu tak menghentikannya berkembang sebagai atlet yang eksplosif. Bahkan, ia memiliki kecepatan lari yang termasuk luar biasa, yakni 34,7 kilometer per jam.

Jika dibandingkan, ia hanya kelah sedikit dari pemain bola cepat lainnya. Sejauh ini, pemain tercepat masih dipegang Cristiano Ronaldo dan Thierry Henry dengan catatan 39,2 kilometer per jam. Urutan berikutnya adalah Arjen Robben dengan kecepatan 37,8 kilometer per jam. Adapun pemegang rekor lari sprint, Usain Bolt, memiliki kecepatan 44 kilometer per jam.

Berdasarkan statistik ini, tak heran jika Pelatih Barcelona, Tito Vilanova, merasa bahwa kehadiran Neymar bakal mempertajam serangan timnya. "Dia pemain yang bisa beroperasi di berbagai posisi, tak hanya di sayap. Dia juga bisa bermain di belakang striker. Kami akan memikirkan perannya sebaik mungkin. Dia pemain yang sangat berbakat," puji Vilanova.

Editor : Liwon Maulana
Sumber:Kompas

Geger video mesum yang melibatkan mantan personil Peterpan, Ariel dengan presenter Cut Tary dan Luna Maya telah menjadi pemberitaan media nasional bahkan internasional. Disinggung tentang kasus yang pernah menimpanya itu, Ariel mengaku tidak pernah risih.

Geger video mesum yang melibatkan mantan personil Peterpan, Ariel dengan presenter Cut Tary dan Luna Maya telah menjadi pemberitaan media nasional bahkan internasional. Disinggung tentang kasus yang pernah menimpanya itu, Ariel mengaku tidak pernah risih.

"Saya nggak risih (kasus video porno diungkit-ungkit). Karena saya punya pengalaman baik di sana. Banyak pengalaman yang menjadi positif buat saya untuk diambil. Semua sangat berkesan," kata Ariel di Prestige Kemang, Jakarta Selatan, Senin (3/6).

Memang, setelah keterpurukannya di dalam penjara, Ariel pun bangkit dengan mengganti nama Peterpan menjadi NOAH. Sukses mereka pun seolah menjadi bukti kharisma band ini, khususnya Ariel bagi para penggemarnya.

Sekitar 16.616 dari 3.667.241 siswa SMP peserta Ujian Nasional (UN) tidak lulus. Provinsi yang ketidaklulusannya paling banyak adalah Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT) dan terkecil di DKI.

Sekitar 16.616 dari 3.667.241 siswa SMP peserta Ujian Nasional (UN) tidak lulus. Provinsi yang ketidaklulusannya paling banyak adalah Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT) dan terkecil di DKI.

"Ini kalau dilihat dari ketidaklulusannya, NTT ada 1.992 siswa yang tidak lulus, Aceh 1.440 siswa dan paling kecil itu DKI, cuma 1 siswa," kata Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan M Nuh dalam jumpa pers di kantornya, Jalan Jenderal Sudirman, Senayan, Jakarta, Jumat (31/5/2013).

Bila dilihat dari distribusinya, ada sekolah yang tidak lulus 100% sebanyak 10 sekolah. Sedangkan yang lulus 100% ada 44.915 sekolah.

"Nah saya mengimbau agar adik-adik yang belum lulus supaya tidak stres, karena masih ada kejar paket B. Juga jangan hura-hura berlebihan bagi yang lulus," pesan mantan Rektor Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS) ini.

Dalam merayakan kelulusan, Nuh menilai siswa SMA lebih baik dari tahun lalu. "Ada yang mengekspresikan kelulusan dengan membagi-bagikan makanan ke orang kecil. Saya harap SMP juga begitu," tuturnya.

Nuh berjanji bagi siswa berprestasi dalam UN akan dimintakan piagam yang diteken Presiden, Kemendikbud, hingga beasiswa.

"Sudah saya kirim surat ke presiden. Tapi kalau tidak bisa ya minimal piagam dari kementerianlah.
Yang kedua kans untuk ke sekolah yang lebih bagus lebih besar. Yang ketiga nanti saya usulkan supaya nanti dapat beasiswa. Jadi ada tiga bentuk penghargaan bagi merekalah," tutur Nuh.

Ms. Pryor, who served more than two decades in the State Department, was the author of well-regarded biographies of the founder of the American Red Cross and the Confederate commander.

THE WRITERS ASHLEY AND JAQUAVIS COLEMAN know the value of a good curtain-raiser. The couple have co-authored dozens of novels, and they like to start them with a bang: a headlong action sequence, a blast of violence or sex that rocks readers back on their heels. But the Colemans concede they would be hard-pressed to dream up anything more gripping than their own real-life opening scene.

In the summer of 2001, JaQuavis Coleman was a 16-year-old foster child in Flint, Mich., the former auto-manufacturing mecca that had devolved, in the wake of General Motors’ plant closures, into one of the country’s most dangerous cities, with a decimated economy and a violent crime rate more than three times the national average. When JaQuavis was 8, social services had removed him from his mother’s home. He spent years bouncing between foster families. At 16, JaQuavis was also a businessman: a crack dealer with a network of street-corner peddlers in his employ.

One day that summer, JaQuavis met a fellow dealer in a parking lot on Flint’s west side. He was there to make a bulk sale of a quarter-brick, or “nine-piece” — a nine-ounce parcel of cocaine, with a street value of about $11,000. In the middle of the transaction, JaQuavis heard the telltale chirp of a walkie-talkie. His customer, he now realized, was an undercover policeman. JaQuavis jumped into his car and spun out onto the road, with two unmarked police cars in pursuit. He didn’t want to get into a high-speed chase, so he whipped his car into a church parking lot and made a run for it, darting into an alleyway behind a row of small houses, where he tossed the quarter-brick into some bushes. When JaQuavis reached the small residential street on the other side of the houses, he was greeted by the police, who handcuffed him and went to search behind the houses where, they told him, they were certain he had ditched the drugs. JaQuavis had been dealing since he was 12, had amassed more than $100,000 and had never been arrested. Now, he thought: It’s over.

But when the police looked in the bushes, they couldn’t find any cocaine. They interrogated JaQuavis, who denied having ever possessed or sold drugs. They combed the backyard alley some more. After an hour of fruitless efforts, the police were forced to unlock the handcuffs and release their suspect.

JaQuavis was baffled by the turn of events until the next day, when he received a phone call. The previous afternoon, a 15-year-old girl had been sitting in her home on the west side of Flint when she heard sirens. She looked out of the window of her bedroom, and watched a young man throw a package in the bushes behind her house. She recognized him. He was a high school classmate — a handsome, charismatic boy whom she had admired from afar. The girl crept outside and grabbed the bundle, which she hid in her basement. “I have something that belongs to you,” Ashley Snell told JaQuavis Coleman when she reached him by phone. “You wanna come over here and pick it up?”

Photo
Three of the nearly 50 works of urban fiction published by the Colemans over the last decade, often featuring drug deals, violence, sex and a brash kind of feminism.Credit Marko Metzinger

In the Colemans’ first novel, “Dirty Money” (2005), they told a version of this story. The outline was the same: the drug deal gone bad, the dope chucked in the bushes, the fateful phone call. To the extent that the authors took poetic license, it was to tone down the meet-cute improbability of the true-life events. In “Dirty Money,” the girl, Anari, and the crack dealer, Maurice, circle each other warily for a year or so before coupling up. But the facts of Ashley and JaQuavis’s romance outstripped pulp fiction. They fell in love more or less at first sight, moved into their own apartment while still in high school and were married in 2008. “We were together from the day we met,” Ashley says. “I don’t think we’ve spent more than a week apart in total over the past 14 years.”

That partnership turned out to be creative and entrepreneurial as well as romantic. Over the past decade, the Colemans have published nearly 50 books, sometimes as solo writers, sometimes under pseudonyms, but usually as collaborators with a byline that has become a trusted brand: “Ashley & JaQuavis.” They are marquee stars of urban fiction, or street lit, a genre whose inner-city settings and lurid mix of crime, sex and sensationalism have earned it comparisons to gangsta rap. The emergence of street lit is one of the big stories in recent American publishing, a juggernaut that has generated huge sales by catering to a readership — young, black and, for the most part, female — that historically has been ill-served by the book business. But the genre is also widely maligned. Street lit is subject to a kind of triple snobbery: scorned by literati who look down on genre fiction generally, ignored by a white publishing establishment that remains largely indifferent to black books and disparaged by African-American intellectuals for poor writing, coarse values and trafficking in racial stereotypes.

But if a certain kind of cultural prestige is shut off to the Colemans, they have reaped other rewards. They’ve built a large and loyal fan base, which gobbles up the new Ashley & JaQuavis titles that arrive every few months. Many of those books are sold at street-corner stands and other off-the-grid venues in African-American neighborhoods, a literary gray market that doesn’t register a blip on best-seller tallies. Yet the Colemans’ most popular series now regularly crack the trade fiction best-seller lists of The New York Times and Publishers Weekly. For years, the pair had no literary agent; they sold hundreds of thousands of books without banking a penny in royalties. Still, they have earned millions of dollars, almost exclusively from cash-for-manuscript deals negotiated directly with independent publishing houses. In short, though little known outside of the world of urban fiction, the Colemans are one of America’s most successful literary couples, a distinction they’ve achieved, they insist, because of their work’s gritty authenticity and their devotion to a primal literary virtue: the power of the ripping yarn.

“When you read our books, you’re gonna realize: ‘Ashley & JaQuavis are storytellers,’ ” says Ashley. “Our tales will get your heart pounding.”

THE COLEMANS’ HOME BASE — the cottage from which they operate their cottage industry — is a spacious four-bedroom house in a genteel suburb about 35 miles north of downtown Detroit. The house is plush, but when I visited this past winter, it was sparsely appointed. The couple had just recently moved in, and had only had time to fully furnish the bedroom of their 4-year-old son, Quaye.

In conversation, Ashley and JaQuavis exude both modesty and bravado: gratitude for their good fortune and bootstrappers’ pride in having made their own luck. They talk a lot about their time in the trenches, the years they spent as a drug dealer and “ride-or-die girl” tandem. In Flint they learned to “grind hard.” Writing, they say, is merely a more elevated kind of grind.

“Instead of hitting the block like we used to, we hit the laptops,” says Ashley. “I know what every word is worth. So while I’m writing, I’m like: ‘Okay, there’s a hundred dollars. There’s a thousand dollars. There’s five thousand dollars.’ ”

They maintain a rigorous regimen. They each try to write 5,000 words per day, five days a week. The writers stagger their shifts: JaQuavis goes to bed at 7 p.m. and wakes up early, around 3 or 4 in the morning, to work while his wife and child sleep. Ashley writes during the day, often in libraries or at Starbucks.

They divide the labor in other ways. Chapters are divvied up more or less equally, with tasks assigned according to individual strengths. (JaQuavis typically handles character development. Ashley loves writing murder scenes.) The results are stitched together, with no editorial interference from one author in the other’s text. The real work, they contend, is the brainstorming. The Colemans spend weeks mapping out their plot-driven books — long conversations that turn into elaborate diagrams on dry-erase boards. “JaQuavis and I are so close, it makes the process real easy,” says Ashley. “Sometimes when I’m thinking of something, a plot point, he’ll say it out loud, and I’m like: ‘Wait — did I say that?’ ”

Their collaboration developed by accident, and on the fly. Both were bookish teenagers. Ashley read lots of Judy Blume and John Grisham; JaQuavis liked Shakespeare, Richard Wright and “Atlas Shrugged.” (Their first official date was at a Borders bookstore, where Ashley bought “The Coldest Winter Ever,” the Sister Souljah novel often credited with kick-starting the contemporary street-lit movement.) In 2003, Ashley, then 17, was forced to terminate an ectopic pregnancy. She was bedridden for three weeks, and to provide distraction and boost her spirits, JaQuavis challenged his girlfriend to a writing contest. “She just wasn’t talking. She was laying in bed. I said, ‘You know what? I bet you I could write a better book than you.’ My wife is real competitive. So I said, ‘Yo, all right, $500 bet.’ And I saw her eyes spark, like, ‘What?! You can’t write no better book than me!’ So I wrote about three chapters. She wrote about three chapters. Two days later, we switched.”

The result, hammered out in a few days, would become “Dirty Money.” Two years later, when Ashley and JaQuavis were students at Ferris State University in Western Michigan, they sold the manuscript to Urban Books, a street-lit imprint founded by the best-selling author Carl Weber. At the time, JaQuavis was still making his living selling drugs. When Ashley got the phone call informing her that their book had been bought, she assumed they’d hit it big, and flushed more than $10,000 worth of cocaine down the toilet. Their advance was a mere $4,000.

Photo
The roots of street lit, found in the midcentury detective novels of Chester Himes and the ‘60s and ‘70s “ghetto fiction” of Iceberg Slim and Donald Goines.Credit Marko Metzinger

Those advances would soon increase, eventually reaching five and six figures. The Colemans built their career, JaQuavis says, in a manner that made sense to him as a veteran dope peddler: by flooding the street with product. From the start, they were prolific, churning out books at a rate of four or five a year. Their novels made their way into stores; the now-defunct chain Waldenbooks, which had stores in urban areas typically bypassed by booksellers, was a major engine of the street-lit market. But Ashley and JaQuavis took advantage of distribution channels established by pioneering urban fiction authors such as Teri Woods and Vickie Stringer, and a network of street-corner tables, magazine stands, corner shops and bodegas. Like rappers who establish their bona fides with gray-market mixtapes, street-lit authors use this system to circumnavigate industry gatekeepers, bringing their work straight to the genre’s core readership. But urban fiction has other aficionados, in less likely places. “Our books are so popular in the prison system,” JaQuavis says. “We’re banned in certain penitentiaries. Inmates fight over the books — there are incidents, you know? I have loved ones in jail, and they’re like: ‘Yo, your books can’t come in here. It’s against the rules.’ ”

The appeal of the Colemans’ work is not hard to fathom. The books are formulaic and taut; they deliver the expected goods efficiently and exuberantly. The titles telegraph the contents: “Diary of a Street Diva,” “Kiss Kiss, Bang Bang,” “Murderville.” The novels serve up a stream of explicit sex and violence in a slangy, tangy, profane voice. In Ashley & JaQuavis’s books people don’t get killed: they get “popped,” “laid out,” get their “cap twisted back.” The smut is constant, with emphasis on the earthy, sticky, olfactory particulars. Romance novel clichés — shuddering orgasms, heroic carnal feats, superlative sexual skill sets — are rendered in the Colemans’ punchy patois.

Subtlety, in other words, isn’t Ashley & JaQuavis’s forte. But their books do have a grainy specificity. In “The Cartel” (2008), the first novel in the Colemans’ best-selling saga of a Miami drug syndicate, they catch the sights and smells of a crack workshop in a housing project: the nostril-stinging scent of cocaine and baking soda bubbling on stovetops; the teams of women, stripped naked except for hospital masks so they can’t pilfer the merchandise, “cutting up the cooked coke on the round wood table.” The subject matter is dark, but the Colemans’ tone is not quite noir. Even in the grimmest scenes, the mood is high-spirited, with the writers palpably relishing the lewd and gory details: the bodies writhing in boudoirs and crumpling under volleys of bullets, the geysers of blood and other bodily fluids.

The luridness of street lit has made it a flashpoint, inciting controversy reminiscent of the hip-hop culture wars of the 1980s and ’90s. But the street-lit debate touches deeper historical roots, reviving decades-old arguments in black literary circles about the mandate to uplift the race and present wholesome images of African-Americans. In 1928, W. E. B. Du Bois slammed the “licentiousness” of “Home to Harlem,” Claude McKay’s rollicking novel of Harlem nightlife. McKay’s book, Du Bois wrote, “for the most part nauseates me, and after the dirtier parts of its filth I feel distinctly like taking a bath.” Similar sentiments have greeted 21st-century street lit. In a 2006 New York Times Op-Ed essay, the journalist and author Nick Chiles decried “the sexualization and degradation of black fiction.” African-American bookstores, Chiles complained, are “overrun with novels that . . . appeal exclusively to our most prurient natures — as if these nasty books were pairing off back in the stockrooms like little paperback rabbits and churning out even more graphic offspring that make Ralph Ellison books cringe into a dusty corner.”

Copulating paperbacks aside, it’s clear that the street-lit debate is about more than literature, touching on questions of paternalism versus populism, and on middle-class anxieties about the black underclass. “It’s part and parcel of black elites’ efforts to define not only a literary tradition, but a racial politics,” said Kinohi Nishikawa, an assistant professor of English and African-American Studies at Princeton University. “There has always been a sense that because African-Americans’ opportunities to represent themselves are so limited in the first place, any hint of criminality or salaciousness would necessarily be a knock on the entire racial politics. One of the pressing debates about African-American literature today is: If we can’t include writers like Ashley & JaQuavis, to what extent is the foundation of our thinking about black literature faulty? Is it just a literature for elites? Or can it be inclusive, bringing urban fiction under the purview of our umbrella term ‘African-American literature’?”

Defenders of street lit note that the genre has a pedigree: a tradition of black pulp fiction that stretches from Chester Himes, the midcentury author of hardboiled Harlem detective stories, to the 1960s and ’70s “ghetto fiction” of Iceberg Slim and Donald Goines, to the current wave of urban fiction authors. Others argue for street lit as a social good, noting that it attracts a large audience that might otherwise never read at all. Scholars like Nishikawa link street lit to recent studies showing increased reading among African-Americans. A 2014 Pew Research Center report found that a greater percentage of black Americans are book readers than whites or Latinos.

For their part, the Colemans place their work in the broader black literary tradition. “You have Maya Angelou, Alice Walker, James Baldwin — all of these traditional black writers, who wrote about the struggles of racism, injustice, inequality,” says Ashley. “We’re writing about the struggle as it happens now. It’s just a different struggle. I’m telling my story. I’m telling the struggle of a black girl from Flint, Michigan, who grew up on welfare.”

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The Colemans in their new four-bedroom house in the northern suburbs of Detroit.Credit Courtesy of Ashley and JaQuavis Coleman

Perhaps there is a high-minded case to be made for street lit. But the virtues of Ashley & JaQuavis’s work are more basic. Their novels do lack literary polish. The writing is not graceful; there are passages of clunky exposition and sex scenes that induce guffaws and eye rolls. But the pleasure quotient is high. The books flaunt a garish brand of feminism, with women characters cast not just as vixens, but also as gangsters — cold-blooded killers, “murder mamas.” The stories are exceptionally well-plotted. “The Cartel” opens by introducing its hero, the crime boss Carter Diamond; on page 9, a gunshot spatters Diamond’s brain across the interior of a police cruiser. The book then flashes back seven years and begins to hurtle forward again — a bullet train, whizzing readers through shifting alliances, romantic entanglements and betrayals, kidnappings, shootouts with Haitian and Dominican gangsters, and a cliffhanger closing scene that leaves the novel’s heroine tied to a chair in a basement, gruesomely tortured to the edge of death. Ashley & JaQuavis’s books are not Ralph Ellison, certainly, but they build up quite a head of steam. They move.

The Colemans are moving themselves these days. They recently signed a deal with St. Martin’s Press, which will bring out the next installment in the “Cartel” series as well as new solo series by both writers. The St. Martin’s deal is both lucrative and legitimizing — a validation of Ashley and JaQuavis’s work by one of publishing’s most venerable houses. The Colemans’ ambitions have grown, as well. A recent trilogy, “Murderville,” tackles human trafficking and the blood-diamond industry in West Africa, with storylines that sweep from Sierra Leone to Mexico to Los Angeles. Increasingly, Ashley & JaQuavis are leaning on research — traveling to far-flung settings and hitting the books in the libraries — and spending less time mining their own rough-and-tumble past.

But Flint remains a source of inspiration. One evening not long ago, JaQuavis led me on a tour of his hometown: a popular roadside bar; the parking lot where he met the undercover cop for the ill-fated drug deal; Ashley’s old house, the site of his almost-arrest. He took me to a ramshackle vehicle repair shop on Flint’s west side, where he worked as a kid, washing cars. He showed me a bathroom at the rear of the garage, where, at age 12, he sneaked away to inspect the first “boulder” of crack that he ever sold. A spray-painted sign on the garage wall, which JaQuavis remembered from his time at the car wash, offered words of warning:

WHAT EVERY YOUNG MAN SHOULD KNOW
ABOUT USING A GUN:
MURDER . . . 30 Years
ARMED ROBBERY . . . 15 Years
ASSAULT . . . 15 Years
RAPE . . . 20 Years
POSSESSION . . . 5 Years
JACKING . . . 20 YEARS

“We still love Flint, Michigan,” JaQuavis says. “It’s so seedy, so treacherous. But there’s some heart in this city. This is where it all started, selling books out the box. In the days when we would get those little $40,000 advances, they’d send us a couple boxes of books for free. We would hit the streets to sell our books, right out of the car trunk. It was a hustle. It still is.”

One old neighborhood asset that the Colemans have not shaken off is swagger. “My wife is the best female writer in the game,” JaQuavis told me. “I believe I’m the best male writer in the game. I’m sleeping next to the best writer in the world. And she’s doing the same.”

 

Gagne wrestled professionally from the late 1940s until the 1980s and was a transitional figure between the early 20th century barnstormers and the steroidal sideshows of today

Public perceptions of race relations in America have grown substantially more negative in the aftermath of the death of a young black man who was injured while in police custody in Baltimore and the subsequent unrest, far eclipsing the sentiment recorded in the wake of turmoil in Ferguson, Mo., last summer.

Americans are also increasingly likely to say that the police are more apt to use deadly force against a black person, the latest New York Times/CBS News poll finds.

The poll findings highlight the challenges for local leaders and police officials in trying to maintain order while sustaining faith in the criminal justice system in a racially polarized nation.

Sixty-one percent of Americans now say race relations in this country are generally bad. That figure is up sharply from 44 percent after the fatal police shooting of Michael Brown and the unrest that followed in Ferguson in August, and 43 percent in December. In a CBS News poll just two months ago, 38 percent said race relations were generally bad. Current views are by far the worst of Barack Obama’s presidency.

The negative sentiment is echoed by broad majorities of blacks and whites alike, a stark change from earlier this year, when 58 percent of blacks thought race relations were bad, but just 35 percent of whites agreed. In August, 48 percent of blacks and 41 percent of whites said they felt that way.

Looking ahead, 44 percent of Americans think race relations are worsening, up from 36 percent in December. Forty-one percent of blacks and 46 percent of whites think so. Pessimism among whites has increased 10 points since December.

Continue reading the main story
Do you think race relations in the United States are generally good or generally bad?
60
40
20
0
White
Black
May '14
May '15
Generally bad
Continue reading the main story
Do you think race relations in the United States are getting better, getting worse or staying about the same?
Getting worse
Staying the same
Getting better
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
44%
37
17
46
36
16
41
42
15

The poll finds that profound racial divisions in views of how the police use deadly force remain. Blacks are more than twice as likely to say police in most communities are more apt to use deadly force against a black person — 79 percent of blacks say so compared with 37 percent of whites. A slim majority of whites say race is not a factor in a police officer’s decision to use deadly force.

Overall, 44 percent of Americans say deadly force is more likely to be used against a black person, up from 37 percent in August and 40 percent in December.

Blacks also remain far more likely than whites to say they feel mostly anxious about the police in their community. Forty-two percent say so, while 51 percent feel mostly safe. Among whites, 8 in 10 feel mostly safe.

One proposal to address the matter — having on-duty police officers wear body cameras — receives overwhelming support. More than 9 in 10 whites and blacks alike favor it.

Continue reading the main story
How would you describe your feelings about the police in your community? Would you say they make you feel mostly safe or mostly anxious?
Mostly safe
Mostly anxious
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
75%
21
3
81
16
3
51
42
7
Continue reading the main story
In general, do you think the police in most communities are more likely to use deadly force against a black person, or more likely to use it against a white person, or don’t you think race affects police use of deadly force?
Police more likely to use deadly force against a black person
Police more likely to use deadly force against a white person
Race DOES NOT affect police use of deadly force
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
44%
37%
79%
2%
2%
1%
46%
53%
16%
9%
8%
4%
Continue reading the main story
Do you favor or oppose on-duty police officers wearing video cameras that would record events and actions as they occur?
Favor
Oppose
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
92%
93%
93%
6%
5%
5%
2%
2%
2%

Asked specifically about the situation in Baltimore, most Americans expressed at least some confidence that the investigation by local authorities would be conducted fairly. But while nearly two-thirds of whites think so, fewer than half of blacks agree. Still, more blacks are confident now than were in August regarding the investigation in Ferguson. On Friday, six members of the police force involved in the arrest of Mr. Gray were charged with serious offenses, including manslaughter. The poll was conducted Thursday through Sunday; results from before charges were announced are similar to those from after.

Reaction to the recent turmoil in Baltimore, however, is similar among blacks and whites. Most Americans, 61 percent, say the unrest after Mr. Gray’s death was not justified. That includes 64 percent of whites and 57 percent of blacks.

Continue reading the main story
As you may know, a Baltimore man, Freddie Gray, recently died after being in the custody of the Baltimore police. How much confidence do you have that the investigation by local authorities into this matter will be conducted fairly?
A lot
Some
Not much
None at all
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
29%
31
22
14
5
31
33
20
11
5
20
26
30
22
In general, do you think the unrest in Baltimore after the death of Freddie Gray was justified, or do you think the unrest was not justified?
Justified
Not justified
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
28%
61
11
26
64
11
37
57
6

Mr. Mankiewicz, an Oscar-nominated screenwriter for “I Want to Live!,” also wrote episodes of television shows such as “Star Trek” and “Marcus Welby, M.D.”

BALTIMORE — In the afternoons, the streets of Locust Point are clean and nearly silent. In front of the rowhouses, potted plants rest next to steps of brick or concrete. There is a shopping center nearby with restaurants, and a grocery store filled with fresh foods.

And the National Guard and the police are largely absent. So, too, residents say, are worries about what happened a few miles away on April 27 when, in a space of hours, parts of this city became riot zones.

“They’re not our reality,” Ashley Fowler, 30, said on Monday at the restaurant where she works. “They’re not what we’re living right now. We live in, not to be racist, white America.”

As Baltimore considers its way forward after the violent unrest brought by the death of Freddie Gray, a 25-year-old black man who died of injuries he suffered while in police custody, residents in its predominantly white neighborhoods acknowledge that they are sometimes struggling to understand what beyond Mr. Gray’s death spurred the turmoil here. For many, the poverty and troubled schools of gritty West Baltimore are distant troubles, glimpsed only when they pass through the area on their way somewhere else.

Photo
 
Officers blocked traffic at Pennsylvania and West North Avenues after reports that a gun was discharged in the area. Credit Drew Angerer for The New York Times

And so neighborhoods of Baltimore are facing altogether different reckonings after Mr. Gray’s death. In mostly black communities like Sandtown-Winchester, where some of the most destructive rioting played out last week, residents are hoping businesses will reopen and that the police will change their strategies. But in mostly white areas like Canton and Locust Point, some residents wonder what role, if any, they should play in reimagining stretches of Baltimore where they do not live.

“Most of the people are kind of at a loss as to what they’re supposed to do,” said Dr. Richard Lamb, a dentist who has practiced in the same Locust Point office for nearly 39 years. “I listen to the news reports. I listen to the clergymen. I listen to the facts of the rampant unemployment and the lack of opportunities in the area. Listen, I pay my taxes. Exactly what can I do?”

And in Canton, where the restaurants have clever names like Nacho Mama’s and Holy Crepe Bakery and Café, Sara Bahr said solutions seemed out of reach for a proudly liberal city.

“I can only imagine how frustrated they must be,” said Ms. Bahr, 36, a nurse who was out with her 3-year-old daughter, Sally. “I just wish I knew how to solve poverty. I don’t know what to do to make it better.”

The day of unrest and the overwhelmingly peaceful demonstrations that followed led to hundreds of arrests, often for violations of the curfew imposed on the city for five consecutive nights while National Guard soldiers patrolled the streets. Although there were isolated instances of trouble in Canton, the neighborhood association said on its website, many parts of southeast Baltimore were physically untouched by the tumult.

Tensions in the city bubbled anew on Monday after reports that the police had wounded a black man in Northwest Baltimore. The authorities denied those reports and sent officers to talk with the crowds that gathered while other officers clutching shields blocked traffic at Pennsylvania and West North Avenues.

Lt. Col. Melvin Russell, a community police officer, said officers had stopped a man suspected of carrying a handgun and that “one of those rounds was spent.”

Colonel Russell said officers had not opened fire, “so we couldn’t have shot him.”

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Lambi Vasilakopoulos, right, who runs a casual restaurant in Canton, said he was incensed by last week's looting and predicted tensions would worsen. Credit Drew Angerer for The New York Times

The colonel said the man had not been injured but was taken to a hospital as a precaution. Nearby, many people stood in disbelief, despite the efforts by the authorities to quash reports they described as “unfounded.”

Monday’s episode was a brief moment in a larger drama that has yielded anger and confusion. Although many people said they were familiar with accounts of the police harassing or intimidating residents, many in Canton and Locust Point said they had never experienced it themselves. When they watched the unrest, which many protesters said was fueled by feelings that they lived only on Baltimore’s margins, even those like Ms. Bahr who were pained by what they saw said they could scarcely comprehend the emotions associated with it.

But others, like Lambi Vasilakopoulos, who runs a casual restaurant in Canton, said they were incensed by what unfolded last week.

“What happened wasn’t called for. Protests are one thing; looting is another thing,” he said, adding, “We’re very frustrated because we’re the ones who are going to pay for this.”

There were pockets of optimism, though, that Baltimore would enter a period of reconciliation.

“I’m just hoping for peace,” Natalie Boies, 53, said in front of the Locust Point home where she has lived for 50 years. “Learn to love each other; be patient with each other; find justice; and care.”

A skeptical Mr. Vasilakopoulos predicted tensions would worsen.

“It cannot be fixed,” he said. “It’s going to get worse. Why? Because people don’t obey the laws. They don’t want to obey them.”

But there were few fears that the violence that plagued West Baltimore last week would play out on these relaxed streets. The authorities, Ms. Fowler said, would make sure of that.

“They kept us safe here,” she said. “I didn’t feel uncomfortable when I was in my house three blocks away from here. I knew I was going to be O.K. because I knew they weren’t going to let anyone come and loot our properties or our businesses or burn our cars.”

WASHINGTON — The last three men to win the Republican nomination have been the prosperous son of a president (George W. Bush), a senator who could not recall how many homes his family owned (John McCain of Arizona; it was seven) and a private equity executive worth an estimated $200 million (Mitt Romney).

The candidates hoping to be the party’s nominee in 2016 are trying to create a very different set of associations. On Sunday, Ben Carson, a retired neurosurgeon, joined the presidential field.

Senator Marco Rubio of Florida praises his parents, a bartender and a Kmart stock clerk, as he urges audiences not to forget “the workers in our hotel kitchens, the landscaping crews in our neighborhoods, the late-night janitorial staff that clean our offices.”

Gov. Scott Walker of Wisconsin, a preacher’s son, posts on Twitter about his ham-and-cheese sandwiches and boasts of his coupon-clipping frugality. His $1 Kohl’s sweater has become a campaign celebrity in its own right.

Senator Rand Paul of Kentucky laments the existence of “two Americas,” borrowing the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s phrase to describe economically and racially troubled communities like Ferguson, Mo., and Detroit.

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Senator Marco Rubio of Florida praises his parents, a bartender and a Kmart stock clerk. Credit Joe Raedle/Getty Images

“Some say, ‘But Democrats care more about the poor,’ ” Mr. Paul likes to say. “If that’s true, why is black unemployment still twice white unemployment? Why has household income declined by $3,500 over the past six years?”

We are in the midst of the Empathy Primary — the rhetorical battleground shaping the Republican presidential field of 2016.

Harmed by the perception that they favor the wealthy at the expense of middle-of-the-road Americans, the party’s contenders are each trying their hardest to get across what the elder George Bush once inelegantly told recession-battered voters in 1992: “Message: I care.”

Their ability to do so — less bluntly, more sincerely — could prove decisive in an election year when power, privilege and family connections will loom large for both parties.

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Questions of understanding and compassion cost Republicans in the last election. Mr. Romney, who memorably dismissed the “47 percent” of Americans as freeloaders, lost to President Obama by 63 percentage points among voters who cast their ballots for the candidate who “cares about people like me,” according to exit polls.

And a Pew poll from February showed that people still believe Republicans are indifferent to working Americans: 54 percent said the Republican Party does not care about the middle class.

That taint of callousness explains why Senator Ted Cruz of Texas declared last week that Republicans “are and should be the party of the 47 percent” — and why another son of a president, Jeb Bush, has made economic opportunity the centerpiece of his message.

With his pedigree and considerable wealth — since he left the Florida governor’s office almost a decade ago he has earned millions of dollars sitting on corporate boards and advising banks — Mr. Bush probably has the most complicated task making the argument to voters that he understands their concerns.

On a visit last week to Puerto Rico, Mr. Bush sounded every bit the populist, railing against “elites” who have stifled economic growth and innovation. In the kind of economy he envisions leading, he said: “We wouldn’t have the middle being squeezed. People in poverty would have a chance to rise up. And the social strains that exist — because the haves and have-nots is the big debate in our country today — would subside.”

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Who Is Running for President (and Who’s Not)?

Republicans’ emphasis on poorer and working-class Americans now represents a shift from the party’s longstanding focus on business owners and “job creators” as the drivers of economic opportunity.

This is intentional, Republican operatives said.

In the last presidential election, Republicans rushed to defend business owners against what they saw as hostility by Democrats to successful, wealthy entrepreneurs.

“Part of what you had was a reaction to the Democrats’ dehumanization of business owners: ‘Oh, you think you started your plumbing company? No you didn’t,’ ” said Grover Norquist, the conservative activist and president of Americans for Tax Reform.

But now, Mr. Norquist said, Republicans should move past that. “Focus on the people in the room who know someone who couldn’t get a job, or a promotion, or a raise because taxes are too high or regulations eat up companies’ time,” he said. “The rich guy can take care of himself.”

Democrats argue that the public will ultimately see through such an approach because Republican positions like opposing a minimum-wage increase and giving private banks a larger role in student loans would hurt working Americans.

“If Republican candidates are just repeating the same tired policies, I’m not sure that smiling while saying it is going to be enough,” said Guy Cecil, a Democratic strategist who is joining a “super PAC” working on behalf of Hillary Rodham Clinton.

Republicans have already attacked Mrs. Clinton over the wealth and power she and her husband have accumulated, caricaturing her as an out-of-touch multimillionaire who earns hundreds of thousands of dollars per speech and has not driven a car since 1996.

Mr. Walker hit this theme recently on Fox News, pointing to Mrs. Clinton’s lucrative book deals and her multiple residences. “This is not someone who is connected with everyday Americans,” he said. His own net worth, according to The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, is less than a half-million dollars; Mr. Walker also owes tens of thousands of dollars on his credit cards.

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But showing off a cheap sweater or boasting of a bootstraps family background not only helps draw a contrast with Mrs. Clinton’s latter-day affluence, it is also an implicit argument against Mr. Bush.

Mr. Walker, who featured a 1998 Saturn with more than 100,000 miles on the odometer in a 2010 campaign ad during his first run for governor, likes to talk about flipping burgers at McDonald’s as a young person. His mother, he has said, grew up on a farm with no indoor plumbing until she was in high school.

Mr. Rubio, among the least wealthy members of the Senate, with an estimated net worth of around a half-million dollars, uses his working-class upbringing as evidence of the “exceptionalism” of America, “where even the son of a bartender and a maid can have the same dreams and the same future as those who come from power and privilege.”

Mr. Cruz alludes to his family’s dysfunction — his parents, he says, were heavy drinkers — and recounts his father’s tale of fleeing Cuba with $100 sewn into his underwear.

Gov. Chris Christie of New Jersey notes that his father paid his way through college working nights at an ice cream plant.

But sometimes the attempts at projecting authenticity can seem forced. Mr. Christie recently found himself on the defensive after telling a New Hampshire audience, “I don’t consider myself a wealthy man.” Tax returns showed that he and his wife, a longtime Wall Street executive, earned nearly $700,000 in 2013.

The story of success against the odds is a political classic, even if it is one the Republican Party has not been able to tell for a long time. Ronald Reagan liked to say that while he had not been born on the wrong side of the tracks, he could always hear the whistle. Richard Nixon was fond of reminding voters how he was born in a house his father had built.

“Probably the idea that is most attractive to an average voter, and an idea that both Republicans and Democrats try to craft into their messages, is this idea that you can rise from nothing,” said Charles C. W. Cooke, a writer for National Review.

There is a certain delight Republicans take in turning that message to their advantage now.

“That’s what Obama did with Hillary,” Mr. Cooke said. “He acknowledged it openly: ‘This is ridiculous. Look at me, this one-term senator with dark skin and all of America’s unsolved racial problems, running against the wife of the last Democratic president.”

Ms. Meadows was the older sister of Audrey Meadows, who played Alice Kramden on “The Honeymooners.”