Info Tempat Kursus Mesin CNC Murah di Pasir Endah Bandung Hubungi : 085711904807 Kami Tenaga ahli yang berpengalaman lebih dari 10 Tahun yang bergerak dalam bidang pelatihan mengoperasikan dan memprogram mesin CNC Milling. Spesial diskon untuk Paket Perusahaan / Instansi, Paket Perguruan Tinggi dan Paket Sekolah/Guru/Siswa yang ingin bekerjasama Hubungi Tim Marketing kami : 085711904807 (Seminar, Workshop, Projek, dll. *Office : LKP SINDO (Lembaga Kursus dan Pelatihan Sinergi Indonesia) Jl. Ters. Cisokan Dalam No. 21 Bandung *Workshop : PT. Tekmindo (Teknologi Manufaktur Indonesia) Bandung
Info Tempat Kursus Mesin CNC Murah di Pasirwangi Bandung Hubungi : 085711904807 Kami Tenaga ahli yang berpengalaman lebih dari 10 Tahun yang bergerak dalam bidang pelatihan mengoperasikan dan memprogram mesin CNC Milling. Spesial diskon untuk Paket Perusahaan / Instansi, Paket Perguruan Tinggi dan Paket Sekolah/Guru/Siswa yang ingin bekerjasama Hubungi Tim Marketing kami : 085711904807 (Seminar, Workshop, Projek, dll. *Office : LKP SINDO (Lembaga Kursus dan Pelatihan Sinergi Indonesia) Jl. Ters. Cisokan Dalam No. 21 Bandung *Workshop : PT. Tekmindo (Teknologi Manufaktur Indonesia) Bandung
Info Tempat Kursus Mesin CNC Murah di Pasanggrahan Bandung Hubungi : 085711904807 Kami Tenaga ahli yang berpengalaman lebih dari 10 Tahun yang bergerak dalam bidang pelatihan mengoperasikan dan memprogram mesin CNC Milling. Spesial diskon untuk Paket Perusahaan / Instansi, Paket Perguruan Tinggi dan Paket Sekolah/Guru/Siswa yang ingin bekerjasama Hubungi Tim Marketing kami : 085711904807 (Seminar, Workshop, Projek, dll. *Office : LKP SINDO (Lembaga Kursus dan Pelatihan Sinergi Indonesia) Jl. Ters. Cisokan Dalam No. 21 Bandung *Workshop : PT. Tekmindo (Teknologi Manufaktur Indonesia) Bandung
Info Tempat Kursus Mesin CNC Murah di Pasirjati Bandung Hubungi : 085711904807 Kami Tenaga ahli yang berpengalaman lebih dari 10 Tahun yang bergerak dalam bidang pelatihan mengoperasikan dan memprogram mesin CNC Milling. Spesial diskon untuk Paket Perusahaan / Instansi, Paket Perguruan Tinggi dan Paket Sekolah/Guru/Siswa yang ingin bekerjasama Hubungi Tim Marketing kami : 085711904807 (Seminar, Workshop, Projek, dll. *Office : LKP SINDO (Lembaga Kursus dan Pelatihan Sinergi Indonesia) Jl. Ters. Cisokan Dalam No. 21 Bandung *Workshop : PT. Tekmindo (Teknologi Manufaktur Indonesia) Bandung
Info Tempat Kursus Mesin CNC Murah di Cigending Bandung Hubungi : 085711904807 Kami Tenaga ahli yang berpengalaman lebih dari 10 Tahun yang bergerak dalam bidang pelatihan mengoperasikan dan memprogram mesin CNC Milling. Spesial diskon untuk Paket Perusahaan / Instansi, Paket Perguruan Tinggi dan Paket Sekolah/Guru/Siswa yang ingin bekerjasama Hubungi Tim Marketing kami : 085711904807 (Seminar, Workshop, Projek, dll. *Office : LKP SINDO (Lembaga Kursus dan Pelatihan Sinergi Indonesia) Jl. Ters. Cisokan Dalam No. 21 Bandung *Workshop : PT. Tekmindo (Teknologi Manufaktur Indonesia) Bandung
Info Tempat Kursus Mesin CNC Murah di Ujung Berung Bandung Hubungi : 085711904807 Kami Tenaga ahli yang berpengalaman lebih dari 10 Tahun yang bergerak dalam bidang pelatihan mengoperasikan dan memprogram mesin CNC Milling. Spesial diskon untuk Paket Perusahaan / Instansi, Paket Perguruan Tinggi dan Paket Sekolah/Guru/Siswa yang ingin bekerjasama Hubungi Tim Marketing kami : 085711904807 (Seminar, Workshop, Projek, dll. *Office : LKP SINDO (Lembaga Kursus dan Pelatihan Sinergi Indonesia) Jl. Ters. Cisokan Dalam No. 21 Bandung *Workshop : PT. Tekmindo (Teknologi Manufaktur Indonesia) Bandung
Info Tempat Kursus Mesin CNC Murah di Babakan Ciamis Bandung Hubungi : 085711904807 Kami Tenaga ahli yang berpengalaman lebih dari 10 Tahun yang bergerak dalam bidang pelatihan mengoperasikan dan memprogram mesin CNC Milling. Spesial diskon untuk Paket Perusahaan / Instansi, Paket Perguruan Tinggi dan Paket Sekolah/Guru/Siswa yang ingin bekerjasama Hubungi Tim Marketing kami : 085711904807 (Seminar, Workshop, Projek, dll. *Office : LKP SINDO (Lembaga Kursus dan Pelatihan Sinergi Indonesia) Jl. Ters. Cisokan Dalam No. 21 Bandung *Workshop : PT. Tekmindo (Teknologi Manufaktur Indonesia) Bandung
Info Tempat Kursus Mesin CNC Murah di Merdeka Bandung Hubungi : 085711904807 Kami Tenaga ahli yang berpengalaman lebih dari 10 Tahun yang bergerak dalam bidang pelatihan mengoperasikan dan memprogram mesin CNC Milling. Spesial diskon untuk Paket Perusahaan / Instansi, Paket Perguruan Tinggi dan Paket Sekolah/Guru/Siswa yang ingin bekerjasama Hubungi Tim Marketing kami : 085711904807 (Seminar, Workshop, Projek, dll. *Office : LKP SINDO (Lembaga Kursus dan Pelatihan Sinergi Indonesia) Jl. Ters. Cisokan Dalam No. 21 Bandung *Workshop : PT. Tekmindo (Teknologi Manufaktur Indonesia) Bandung
Info Tempat Kursus Mesin CNC Murah di Kebon Pisang Bandung Hubungi : 085711904807 Kami Tenaga ahli yang berpengalaman lebih dari 10 Tahun yang bergerak dalam bidang pelatihan mengoperasikan dan memprogram mesin CNC Milling. Spesial diskon untuk Paket Perusahaan / Instansi, Paket Perguruan Tinggi dan Paket Sekolah/Guru/Siswa yang ingin bekerjasama Hubungi Tim Marketing kami : 085711904807 (Seminar, Workshop, Projek, dll. *Office : LKP SINDO (Lembaga Kursus dan Pelatihan Sinergi Indonesia) Jl. Ters. Cisokan Dalam No. 21 Bandung *Workshop : PT. Tekmindo (Teknologi Manufaktur Indonesia) Bandung
Terdapat beberapa perbedaan antara Haji dan Umroh. Ibadah Umrah itu sendiri bisa dikatakan Haji kecil, karena ada beberapa manas
Terdapat beberapa perbedaan antara Haji dan Umroh. Ibadah Umrah itu sendiri bisa dikatakan Haji kecil, karena ada beberapa manasik yang sama. Namun antara Haji dan Umrah tidaklah sama. apa saja perbedaan antara haji dan Umrah, berikut ini sedikit paparan mengenai perbedaan antara Haji dan Umrah.
Dari segi waktu, ibadah haji mempunyai waktu-waktu tertentu yaitu bulan-bulan tertentu yang tidak sah niat ihram haji kecuali di dalamnya. Adapun bulan-bulan tersebut yaitu: syawal, dzulqo’dah, dan 10 hari pertama dari bulan dzulhijjah. Sedangkan umrah, maka hari-hari dalam setahun adalah merupakan waktu dibolehkannnya untuk niat ibadah umrah, kecuali waktu-waktu haji bagi orang yang berniat ihram haji saja didalamnya.
Adapun dari segi manasik, dalam ibadah haji terdapat wukuf di arafah, mabit di mudzdalifah dan di mina, melempar jumrah. Sedangkan umrah, hal-hal di atas tidak perlu dilakukan. Yang mana umrah hanya terdiri: niat ihram, thowaf dan sai, halq atapun tahallul.
Ulama’ sepakat atas kewajiban menjalankan ibadah haji bagi yang mampu, sedangkan dalam umrah terdapat perbedaan pendapat hukum menjalankannya, apakah ia wajib atau tidak bagi yang mampu.
Mengetahui Perbedaan antara Haji dan Umrah sangat diperlukan dan harus diperhatikan. Ada beberapa perbedaan hal antara Haji dan Umrah, siantaranya sebagai berikut :
Umrah tidak mempunyai waktu tertentu dan tidak bisa ketinggalan waktu.
Dalam umrah tidak ada wukuf di Arafah dan tidak ada pula singgah di Muzdalifah.
Dalam umrah tidak ada kegiatan melontar jumrah.
Tidak ada jamak antara dua shalat seperti dalam pelaksanaan haji. Demikian menurut Ulama Hanafiyah, Malikiyah, dan Hanabilah. Sedangkan ulama Syafi’iyah berpendapat dibolehkan jamak dan qashar. Menurut mereka, haji dan umrah bukanlah sebab bagi bolehnya jamak antara dua shalat, melainkan sebabnya adalah karena safar (perjalanan).
Tidak ada thawaf qudum dan tidak ada pula khutbah.
Miqat umrah untuk semua orang adalah Tanah Halal. Sedangkan dalam ibadah haji, miqat bagi orang Makkah adalah Tanah Haram.
Menurut ulama Malikiyah dan Hanafiyah, hukum umrah adalah sunah muakkad sedangkan haji hukumnya adalah fardhu. Menurut ulama Hanafiyah, pada ibadah umrah tidak ada Thawaf Wada sebagaimana dalam haji. Membatalkan umrah dan melakukan thawaf dalam keadaan junub tidak diwajibkan membayar denda seekor unta yang digemukkan (al-badanah) sebagaimana diwajibkan dalam ibadah haji.
Demikian Ulasan mengenai perbedaan Haji dan Umrah. memang terdapat beberapa Ikhtilaf Ulama, namun itu adalah berkahnya ikhtilaf. smoga sedikit penjelasan Haji Umrah ini bermanfaat.
saco-indonesia.com, Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) terus akan mengusut pihak-pihak yang diduga telah terlibat dalam kasus du
saco-indonesia.com, Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) terus akan mengusut pihak-pihak yang diduga telah terlibat dalam kasus dugaan suap penanganan perkara pemalsuan sertifikat tanah di Pengadilan Negeri Praya, Kabupaten Lombok Tengah. Tidak tanggung-tanggung, hari ini lembaga antikorupsi itu akan memeriksa tujuh saksi dari kalangan penegak hukum di Kabupaten Lombok Tengah.
Saksi-saksi itu di antaranya tiga hakim Pengadilan Negeri Praya, yakni Dewi Santini, Desak Ketut Yuni Aryanti, dan Sumedi. Sumedi adalah Ketua PN Praya. Saksi lainnya adalah dari pihak kejaksaan yakni Kepala Seksi Pidana Khusus Kejaksaan Negeri Praya Apriyanto Kurniawan.
Tiga saksi terakhir berasal dari Kepolisian. Yaitu Kepala Kepolisian Resor Lombok Tengah AKBP Suproyadi, Kepala Satuan Reserse Kriminal Polres Lombok Tengah, Iptu Deny Septiawan, dan Kepala Kepolisian Sektor Praya Barat, Kompol H Ridwan.
"Tujuh saksi itu akan diperiksa untuk tersangka SUB dan LAR," tulis Kepala Pemberitaan dan Publikasi KPK, Priharsa Nugraha, melalui pesan singkat, Senin (23/12).
KPK juga sudah menetapkan dua tersangka dalam kasus ini. Mereka adalah SUB dan LAR. SUB adalah Kepala Kejaksaan Negeri Praya, Subri SH. Sementara LAR adalah Direktur PT Pantai Aan, Lusita Anie Razak. Diduga masih ada pihak lain yang ikut terlibat dalam perkara ini.
LAR dan kawan-kawan telah disangkakan Pasal 5 ayat 1 huruf a atau b atau Pasal 13 UU No. 13 Tahun 1999 sebagaimana yang diubah UU No. 20 Tahun 2001 jo Pasal 55 ayat 1 ke-1 KUHPidana. Sementara SUB dan kawan-kawan yang diduga telah melanggar Pasal 12 huruf a atau b atau Pasal 5 ayat 2 Pasal 11 UU No. 13 Tahun 1999 sebagaimana yang diubah UU No. 20 Tahun 2001 jo Pasal 55 ayat 1 ke-1 KUHP.
Kasus ini juga telah menyeret mantan Ketua Dewan Pengarah Badan Pemenangan Pemilu Partai Hanura, Bambang Wiratmaji Soeharto. Ketua Kesatuan Organisasi Serbaguna Gotong Royong itu juga diketahui sebagai pemilik PT Pantai Aan. Perusahaan itu disebut akan membangun fasilitas penginapan di Lombok Tengah. Tetapi, tanah yang mereka incar sedang dalam sengketa.
Editor : Dian Sukmawati
KIRIM MOBIL ONLINE MARINE CARGO INSURANCE
Marine Cargo Insurance (Asuransi Pengangkutan) adalah asuransi yang telah menjamin resiko kerugian terhadap harta benda tertangg
Marine Cargo Insurance (Asuransi Pengangkutan) adalah asuransi yang telah menjamin resiko kerugian terhadap harta benda tertanggung selama perjalanan melalui pengankutan laut, darat dan udara.
Untuk dapat memberikan rasa aman dan nyaman dalam melakukan pengiriman mobil, PT. Surya Andriatama bekerja sama dengan PT. Asuransi Tokio Marine Indonesia. Bentuk kerjasama ini kami lakukan dengan pola KONTRAK ASURANSI BERJANGKA, dimana jaminan pertanggungan yang kami berikan adalah ALL RISK COMPREHENSIVE-INSTITUTE CARGO Open Policy No : MOP/TM/12/023 . Pola kerjasama ini kami memberikan keuntungan bagi customer dan PT. Surya Andriatama.
Setiap Kirim Mobil Online yang dilakukan oleh PT. Surya Andriatama, telah di cover oleh PT. Asuransi Tokio Marine Indonesia (PT ATMI). Karena Polis Kirim Mobil yang kami miliki adalah Open Polis Insurance (polis terbuka ).
Dalam mengelola resiko Kirim Mobil (insurance risk management), PT Surya Andriatama melakukan kerjasama pula dengan PT. Buana Jasa Pratama yang sudah ahli sebagai Insurance Brokers & Consultant.
Untuk lebih memahami dan meyakinkan dalam hal kerjasama asuransi ini , customer dapat melakukan verifikasi terhadap kontrak Asuransi Berjangka atas nama PT. Surya Andriatama ke PT. Buana Jasa Pratama atau PT. Asuransi Tokio Marine Indonesia.
GEISHA HATIKU BICARA
Ku sadari keras watakku padamu
Mungkin ku salah
Ku sadari keras watakku padamu
Mungkin ku salah menyakitimu
Atau mungkin pernah ku menduakanmu
Memang ku kurang menghargaimu
Dan kini lantang hati bicara
Takkan pernah ku buat kau kecewa
Pastikan ku berubah
Kau buat hatiku bicara
Cinta sungguh ku cinta
Dan kau buat hatiku terus berkata
Cintta sungguh ku cintaKau pahami semua caraku padamu
Susah percaya dan terus mengganggu
Fikiranmu yang tak lagi pikirkanku
Ku tak percaya kau telah begitu
Back to *, **
Kau buat hatiku bicara
Cinta sungguh ku cinta
Dan ku pastikan semuanya karenamu
Editor : Dian Sukmawati
MINA DI JADIKAN TEMPAT MABIT
MAKKAH–Pemerintah Arab Saudi tetap menolak permohonan Indonesia untuk tidak menggunakan perluasan wilayah Mina (Mina Jadid
MAKKAH–Pemerintah Arab Saudi tetap menolak permohonan Indonesia untuk tidak menggunakan perluasan wilayah Mina (Mina Jadid) . Pemerintah Kerajaan Arab Saudi memutuskan bahwa Mina Jadid tetap digunakan sebagai tempat mabit (bermalam) bagi sebagian jamaah asal Indonesia.
”Permintaan Indonesia untuk tak menggunakan Mina Jadid ditolak oleh Pemerintah Arab Saudi. Kami sendiri tak diberitahu alasan penolakan tersebut,” kata Kepala PPIH Daerah Kerja Madinah, Akhmad Jauhari, Sabtu (5/10), dikutip dari Media Center Haji (MCH).
“Dari total 48 maktab yang disediakan untuk Indonesia, 8 maktab di antaranya berada di wilayah Mina Jadid. Artinya, 8 × 3.250 orang, itulah total jamaah asal Indonesia yang akan mabit di Mina Jadid” kata Jauhari.
Jauhari menambahkan, pada tahun ini kapasitas setiap maktab mengalami penggemukan. Hal itu mengakibatkan adanya rekonfigurasi penomoran maktab jamaah haji Indonesia di Mina. ”Jumlah maktabnya tetap 48. Namun, kapasitas setiap maktab bertambah, dari semula 2.800 orang menjadi 3.250 orang,” ujarnya.
Dengan adanya rekonfigurasi, kata dia, penomoran maktab tidak lagi berurut dari 1 sampai dengan 48 maktab. Karena penambahan kapasitas, distribusi jamaah dalam satu maktab akan ‘memakan’ jatah maktab berikutnya. ”Di Mina itu, areal maktab tak berubah bahkan sudah dipagari. Kapasitasnya pun tetap untuk 2.800 orang. Akibatnya, ada beberapa nomor maktab yang hilang,” ucapnya.
Jauhari mencontohkan, sebagian jamaah yang bermukim di maktab 1 akan tinggal di perkemahan yang sebenarnya sudah masuk ke maktab 2, demikian seterusnya.
Oleh karena itu, nanti, ada nomor maktab yang ’hilang’ karena lokasinya sudah penuh. Maktab-maktab inilah yang kemudian berubah, tidak lagi sesuai dengan hasil qur’ah (undian). ”Totalnya, terdapat 15 maktab yang berubah,
Taman Wisata Matahari
Taman Wisata Matahari telah terletak di Jalan Raya Puncak Bogor dengan luas sekitar 30 hektar dengan me
Taman Wisata Matahari
Taman Wisata Matahari telah terletak di Jalan Raya Puncak Bogor dengan luas sekitar 30 hektar dengan menawarkan suasana wisata pegunungan yang sangat menyegarkan. Kita juga dapat masuk ke Taman Wisata Matahari melalui dua jalan alternatif, yaitu melalui jalan masuk menuju kawasan wisata Curug Cilember dan melalui samping Rumah Makan Jago Rasa yang berada di sebelah kiri dari arah Ciawi menuju Puncak.
Taman Wisata Matahari telah menyediakan fasilitas wisata mulai dari; Villa, Kolam Renang, Wisata Air, Paddle Boat, Mini Boat, Bumper Boat, Mobil dan Motor Safari, ATV Off Road, Arena Bermain anak, komidi putar, Wisata Sungai, Paket Outbond, Flying Fox dan Belanja di Super Bazzar.
Fasilitas Taman Wisata Matahari juga telah memiliki fasilitas akomodasi berupa Villa, Aula dengan daya tampung dari 10-500 orang (indoor) hingga 10.000 orang (outdoor). Selain itu tersedia pula: *Program Outbound (Team/Character Building, Outbound for Kids, Adventure, dll)
HELM KESELAMATAN KERJA
Alat Keselamatan Kerja (Helm)
Salah satu alat keselamatan kerja adalah helm. helm ad
Alat Keselamatan Kerja (Helm)
Salah satu alat keselamatan kerja adalah helm. helm adalah alat yang sering dipakai dikepala sebagai pelindung yang biasanya telah terbuat dari kevlar, serat resin, fiberglass, molded plastic. Bekerja juga sangat mungkin telah terjadi kecelakan seperti terjatuhnya benda keras kearah kepala. Untuk itu seorang pekerja harus memerlukan helm untuk dapat melindungi kepala, karena suatu kecelakaan dapat terjadi kapan saja, tanpa dapat diketahui sebelumnya. dengan menggunakkan helm kepala akan terlindungi dengan harapan terhindar dari luka karena kecelakaan.
1. Lapisan luar yang keras (hard outer shell)
Didesain untuk dapat pecah jika mengalami benturan untuk dapat mengurangi dampak tekanan sebelum sampai ke kepala. Lapisan ini biasanya telah terbuat dari bahan polycarbonate
2. Lapisan dalam yang tebal (inside shell or liner)
Di sebelah dalam dari lapisan luar adalah lapisan yang sama pentingnya untuk dampak pelapis–penyangga. Biasanya telah dibuat dari bahan polystyrene (styrofoam). Lapisan tebal ini telah memberikan bantalan yang berfungsi untuk menahan goncangan sewaktu helm terbentur benda keras sementara kepala masih bergerak
Sewaktu ada tabrakan yang telah membenturkan bagian kepala dengan benda keras, lapisan keras luar dan lapisan dalam helm telah meyebarkan tekanan keseluruh materi helm. Helm tersebut dapat mencegah adanya benturan yang dapat mematahkan tengkorak.
3. Lapisan dalam yang lunak (comfort padding)
Merupakan bagian dalam yang telah terdiri dari bahan lunak dan kain untuk dapat menempatkan kepala secara pas dan tepat pada rongga helm.
Bagian penting lainnya dalam helm ada tali pengikat helm. Helm tidak akan berfungsi dengan baik kalau tidak dilengkapi atau tidak mengikatkan tali pengikatnya.
Editor : Dian Sukmawati
Kedatangan jenazah brimob dirumah duka mengundang jerit tangis yang
Jenazah Briptu M Sialen, anggota Brimob Daerah Sumatera Utara (Sumut) yang
tewas dikeroyok, sudah tiba di rumah duka di Medan. Ratusan pelayat terus berdatangan.
Jenazah Briptu M Silaen tiba sekitar pukul 13.00 WIB, Jumat (10/5/2013) di rumah duka, Jalan
Medan – Binjai Kilometer 7,8, Gg Sekata, Medan. Dengan diiringi tangis keluarga, jenazah di dalam
peti mati itu diletakkan di ruangan tengah rumah duka.
Para pelayat yang sudah berdatangan
sejak pagi, jumlahnya semakin banyak. Para pelayat terutama rekan-rekan sejawat Briptu Silaen
dari korps Brimob yang bertugas di Brimob Daerah Sumut.
Jenazah Briptu M Sialen, anggota
Brimob Daerah Sumatera Utara (Sumut) yang tewas dikeroyok, sudah tiba di rumah duka di Medan.
Ratusan pelayat terus berdatangan.
Jenazah Briptu M Silaen tiba sekitar pukul
13.00 WIB, Jumat (10/5/2013) di rumah duka, Jalan Medan – Binjai Kilometer 7,8, Gg
Sekata, Medan. Dengan diiringi tangis keluarga, jenazah di dalam peti mati itu diletakkan di
ruangan tengah rumah duka.
Para pelayat yang sudah berdatangan sejak pagi,
jumlahnya semakin banyak. Para pelayat terutama rekan-rekan sejawat Briptu Silaen dari korps
Brimob yang bertugas di Brimob Daerah Sumut.
Sejauh ini masih belum dipastikan
waktu dan lokasi pengebumian. Pihak keluarga masih bermusyawarah untuk mengambil keputusan.
Briptu M Silaen yang bertugas di Subden 4, Subden 4C Brimob Daerah Sumut tewas
dikeroyok sekelompok orang di Jalan Sei Serayu, Medan pada Jumat dinihari. Bagian kepala korban
dipukul dengan kayu berulang kali. Sepeda motor, handphone dan dompet korban hilang dirampas
LOWONGAN KERJA TERBARU DI PT. BUMA GROUP | PAPUA
Portal Lowongan Kerja Indonesia. Update Informasi Lowongan Kerja Terbaru Januari 2014 di BUMA GROUP sebagai Acc
Portal Lowongan Kerja Indonesia. Update Informasi Lowongan Kerja Terbaru Januari 2014 di BUMA GROUP sebagai Accounting Manager. Perusahaan tersebut sedang membutuhkan tenaga kerja profesional untuk menempati kursi kekosongan. Bagi anda yang berminat untuk menempati kekosongan tersebut, silahkan baca persyaratan pendaftaran dan simak artikel selengkapnya di bawah ini :
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WASHINGTON — During a training course on defending against knife attacks, a young Salt Lake City police officer asked a question: “How close can somebody get to me before I’m justified in using deadly force?”
Dennis Tueller, the instructor in that class more than three decades ago, decided to find out. In the fall of 1982, he performed a rudimentary series of tests and concluded that an armed attacker who bolted toward an officer could clear 21 feet in the time it took most officers to draw, aim and fire their weapon.
The next spring, Mr. Tueller published his findings in SWAT magazine and transformed police training in the United States. The “21-foot rule” became dogma. It has been taught in police academies around the country, accepted by courts and cited by officers to justify countless shootings, including recent episodes involving a homeless woodcarver in Seattle and a schizophrenic woman in San Francisco.
Now, amid the largest national debate over policing since the 1991 beating of Rodney King in Los Angeles, a small but vocal set of law enforcement officials are calling for a rethinking of the 21-foot rule and other axioms that have emphasized how to use force, not how to avoid it. Several big-city police departments are already re-examining when officers should chase people or draw their guns and when they should back away, wait or try to defuse the situation
With Iran Talks, a Tangled Path to Ending Syria’s War
UNITED NATIONS — Wearing pinstripes and a pince-nez, Staffan de Mistura, the United Nations envoy for Syria, arrived at the Security Council one Tuesday afternoon in February and announced that President Bashar al-Assad had agreed to halt airstrikes over Aleppo. Would the rebels, Mr. de Mistura suggested, agree to halt their shelling?
What he did not announce, but everyone knew by then, was that the Assad government had begun a military offensive to encircle opposition-held enclaves in Aleppo and that fierce fighting was underway. It would take only a few days for rebel leaders, having pushed back Syrian government forces, to outright reject Mr. de Mistura’s proposed freeze in the fighting, dooming the latest diplomatic overture on Syria.
Diplomacy is often about appearing to be doing something until the time is ripe for a deal to be done.
Now, with Mr. Assad’s forces having suffered a string of losses on the battlefield and the United States reaching at least a partial rapprochement with Mr. Assad’s main backer, Iran, Mr. de Mistura is changing course. Starting Monday, he is set to hold a series of closed talks in Geneva with the warring sides and their main supporters. Iran will be among them.
In an interview at United Nations headquarters last week, Mr. de Mistura hinted that the changing circumstances, both military and diplomatic, may have prompted various backers of the war to question how much longer the bloodshed could go on.
“Will that have an impact in accelerating the willingness for a political solution? We need to test it,” he said. “The Geneva consultations may be a good umbrella for testing that. It’s an occasion for asking everyone, including the government, if there is any new way that they are looking at a political solution, as they too claim they want.”
He said he would have a better assessment at the end of June, when he expects to wrap up his consultations. That coincides with the deadline for a final agreement in the Iran nuclear talks.
Whether a nuclear deal with Iran will pave the way for a new opening on peace talks in Syria remains to be seen. Increasingly, though, world leaders are explicitly linking the two, with the European Union’s top diplomat, Federica Mogherini, suggesting last week that a nuclear agreement could spur Tehran to play “a major but positive role in Syria.”
It could hardly come soon enough. Now in its fifth year, the Syrian war has claimed 220,000 lives, prompted an exodus of more than three million refugees and unleashed jihadist groups across the region. “This conflict is producing a question mark in many — where is it leading and whether this can be sustained,” Mr. de Mistura said.
Part Italian, part Swedish, Mr. de Mistura has worked with the United Nations for more than 40 years, but he is more widely known for his dapper style than for any diplomatic coups. Syria is by far the toughest assignment of his career — indeed, two of the organization’s most seasoned diplomats, Lakhdar Brahimi and Kofi Annan, tried to do the job and gave up — and critics have wondered aloud whether Mr. de Mistura is up to the task.
He served as a United Nations envoy in Afghanistan and Iraq, and before that in Lebanon, where a former minister recalled, with some scorn, that he spent many hours sunbathing at a private club in the hills above Beirut. Those who know him say he has a taste for fine suits and can sometimes speak too soon and too much, just as they point to his diplomatic missteps and hyperbole.
They cite, for instance, a news conference in October, when he raised the specter of Srebrenica, where thousands of Muslims were massacred in 1995 during the Balkans war, in warning that the Syrian border town of Kobani could fall to the Islamic State. In February, he was photographed at a party in Damascus, the Syrian capital, celebrating the anniversary of the Iranian revolution just as Syrian forces, aided by Iran, were pummeling rebel-held suburbs of Damascus; critics seized on that as evidence of his coziness with the government.
Mouin Rabbani, who served briefly as the head of Mr. de Mistura’s political affairs unit and has since emerged as one of his most outspoken critics, said Mr. de Mistura did not have the background necessary for the job. “This isn’t someone well known for his political vision or political imagination, and his closest confidants lack the requisite knowledge and experience,” Mr. Rabbani said.
As a deputy foreign minister in the Italian government, Mr. de Mistura was tasked in 2012 with freeing two Italian marines detained in India for shooting at Indian fishermen. He made 19 trips to India, to little effect. One marine was allowed to return to Italy for medical reasons; the other remains in India.
He said he initially turned down the Syria job when the United Nations secretary general approached him last August, only to change his mind the next day, after a sleepless, guilt-ridden night.
Mr. de Mistura compared his role in Syria to that of a doctor faced with a terminally ill patient. His goal in brokering a freeze in the fighting, he said, was to alleviate suffering. He settled on Aleppo as the location for its “fame,” he said, a decision that some questioned, considering that Aleppo was far trickier than the many other lesser-known towns where activists had negotiated temporary local cease-fires.
“Everybody, at least in Europe, are very familiar with the value of Aleppo,” Mr. de Mistura said. “So I was using that as an icebreaker.”
The cease-fire negotiations, to which he had devoted six months, fell apart quickly because of the government’s military offensive in Aleppo the very day of his announcement at the Security Council. Privately, United Nations diplomats said Mr. de Mistura had been manipulated. To this, Mr. de Mistura said only that he was “disappointed and concerned.”
Tarek Fares, a former rebel fighter, said after a recent visit to Aleppo that no Syrian would admit publicly to supporting Mr. de Mistura’s cease-fire proposal. “If anyone said they went to a de Mistura meeting in Gaziantep, they would be arrested,” is how he put it, referring to the Turkish city where negotiations between the two sides were held.
Secretary General Ban Ki-moon remains staunchly behind Mr. de Mistura’s efforts. His defenders point out that he is at the center of one of the world’s toughest diplomatic problems, charged with mediating a conflict in which two of the world’s most powerful nations — Russia, which supports Mr. Assad, and the United States, which has called for his ouster — remain deadlocked.
R. Nicholas Burns, a former State Department official who now teaches at Harvard, credited Mr. de Mistura for trying to negotiate a cease-fire even when the chances of success were exceedingly small — and the chances of a political deal even smaller. For his efforts to work, Professor Burns argued, the world powers will first have to come to an agreement of their own.
“He needs the help of outside powers,” he said. “It starts with backers of Assad. That’s Russia and Iran. De Mistura is there, waiting.”
Harvey R. Miller, Renowned Bankruptcy Lawyer, Dies at 82
Mr. Miller, of the firm Weil, Gotshal & Manges, represented companies including Lehman Brothers, General Motors and American Airlines, and mentored many of the top Chapter 11 practitioners today.
Mr. Bartoszewski was given honorary Israeli citizenship for his work to save Jews during World War II and later surprised even himself by being instrumental in reconciling Poland and Germany.
Bruce Alger, 96, Dies; Led ‘Mink Coat’ Protest Against Lyndon Johnson
Mr. Alger, who served five terms from Texas, led Republican women in a confrontation with Lyndon B. Johnson that may have cost Richard M. Nixon the 1960 presidential election.
Top News China’s Intents Are Questioned as It Builds in Antarctica
HOBART, Tasmania — Few places seem out of reach for China’s leader, Xi Jinping, who has traveled from European capitals to obscure Pacific and Caribbean islands in pursuit of his nation’s strategic interests.
So perhaps it was not surprising when he turned up last fall in this city on the edge of the Southern Ocean to put down a long-distance marker in another faraway region, Antarctica, 2,000 miles south of this Australian port.
Standing on the deck of an icebreaker that ferries Chinese scientists from this last stop before the frozen continent, Mr. Xi pledged that China would continue to expand in one of the few places on earth that remain unexploited by humans.
He signed a five-year accord with the Australian government that allows Chinese vessels and, in the future, aircraft to resupply for fuel and food before heading south. That will help secure easier access to a region that is believed to have vast oil and mineral resources; huge quantities of high-protein sea life; and for times of possible future dire need, fresh water contained in icebergs.
It was not until 1985, about seven decades after Robert Scott and Roald Amundsen raced to the South Pole, that a team representing Beijing hoisted the Chinese flag over the nation’s first Antarctic research base, the Great Wall Station on King George Island.
But now China seems determined to catch up. As it has bolstered spending on Antarctic research, and as the early explorers, especially the United States and Australia, confront stagnant budgets, there is growing concern about its intentions.
China’s operations on the continent — it opened its fourth research station last year, chose a site for a fifth, and is investing in a second icebreaker and new ice-capable planes and helicopters — are already the fastest growing of the 52 signatories to the Antarctic Treaty. That gentlemen’s agreement reached in 1959 bans military activity on the continent and aims to preserve it as one of the world’s last wildernesses; a related pact prohibits mining.
But Mr. Xi’s visit was another sign that China is positioning itself to take advantage of the continent’s resource potential when the treaty expires in 2048 — or in the event that it is ripped up before, Chinese and Australian experts say.
“So far, our research is natural-science based, but we know there is more and more concern about resource security,” said Yang Huigen, director general of the Polar Research Institute of China, who accompanied Mr. Xi last November on his visit to Hobart and stood with him on the icebreaker, Xue Long, or Snow Dragon.
With that in mind, the polar institute recently opened a new division devoted to the study of resources, law, geopolitics and governance in Antarctica and the Arctic, Mr. Yang said.
Australia, a strategic ally of the United States that has strong economic relations with China, is watching China’s buildup in the Antarctic with a mix of gratitude — China’s presence offers support for Australia’s Antarctic science program, which is short of cash — and wariness.
“We should have no illusions about the deeper agenda — one that has not even been agreed to by Chinese scientists but is driven by Xi, and most likely his successors,” said Peter Jennings, executive director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute and a former senior official in the Australian Department of Defense.
“This is part of a broader pattern of a mercantilist approach all around the world,” Mr. Jennings added. “A big driver of Chinese policy is to secure long-term energy supply and food supply.”
That approach was evident last month when a large Chinese agriculture enterprise announced an expansion of its fishing operations around Antarctica to catch more krill — small, protein-rich crustaceans that are abundant in Antarctic waters.
“The Antarctic is a treasure house for all human beings, and China should go there and share,” Liu Shenli, the chairman of the China National Agricultural Development Group, told China Daily, a state-owned newspaper. China would aim to fish up to two million tons of krill a year, he said, a substantial increase from what it currently harvests.
Because sovereignty over Antarctica is unclear, nations have sought to strengthen their claims over the ice-covered land by building research bases and naming geographic features. China’s fifth station will put it within reach of the six American facilities, and ahead of Australia’s three.
Chinese mappers have also given Chinese names to more than 300 sites, compared with the thousands of locations on the continent with English names.
In the unspoken competition for Antarctica’s future, scientific achievement can also translate into influence. Chinese scientists are driving to be the first to drill and recover an ice core containing tiny air bubbles that provide a record of climate change stretching as far back as 1.5 million years. It is an expensive and delicate effort at which others, including the European Union and Australia, have failed.
In a breakthrough a decade ago, European scientists extracted an ice core nearly two miles long that revealed 800,000 years of climate history. But finding an ice core going back further would allow scientists to examine a change in the earth’s climate cycles believed to have occurred 900,000 to 1.2 million years ago.
China is betting it has found the best location to drill, at an area called Dome A, or Dome Argus, the highest point on the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Though it is considered one of the coldest places on the planet, with temperatures of 130 degrees below zero Fahrenheit, a Chinese expedition explored the area in 2005 and established a research station in 2009.
“The international community has drilled in lots of places, but no luck so far,” said Xiao Cunde, a member of the first party to reach the site and the deputy director of the Institute for Climate Change at the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences. “We think at Dome A we will have a straight shot at the one-million-year ice core.”
Mr. Xiao said China had already begun drilling and hoped to find what scientists are looking for in four to five years.
To support its Antarctic aspirations, China is building a sophisticated $300 million icebreaker that is expected to be ready in a few years, said Xia Limin, deputy director of the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Administration in Beijing. It has also bought a high-tech fixed-wing aircraft, outfitted in the United States, for taking sensitive scientific soundings from the ice.
China has chosen the site for its fifth research station at Inexpressible Island, named by a group of British explorers who were stranded at the desolate site in 1912 and survived the winter by excavating a small ice cave.
Mr. Xia said the inhospitable spot was ideal because China did not have a presence in that part of Antarctica, and because the rocky site did not have much snow, making it relatively cheap to build there.
Anne-Marie Brady, a professor of political science at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand and the author of a soon-to-be-released book, “China as a Polar Great Power,” said Chinese scientists also believed they had a good chance of finding mineral and energy resources near the site.
“China is playing a long game in Antarctica and keeping other states guessing about its true intentions and interests are part of its poker hand,” she said. But she noted that China’s interest in finding minerals was presented “loud and clear to domestic audiences” as the main reason it was investing in Antarctica.
Because commercial drilling is banned, estimates of energy and mineral resources in Antarctica rely on remote sensing data and comparisons with similar geological environments elsewhere, said Millard F. Coffin, executive director of the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies in Hobart.
But the difficulty of extraction in such severe conditions and uncertainty about future commodity prices make it unlikely that China or any country would defy the ban on mining anytime soon.
Tourism, however, is already booming. Travelers from China are still a relatively small contingent in the Antarctic compared with the more than 13,000 Americans who visited in 2013, and as yet there are no licensed Chinese tour operators.
But that is about to change, said Anthony Bergin, deputy director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute. “I understand very soon there will be Chinese tourists on Chinese vessels with all-Chinese crew in the Antarctic,” he said.
Elizabeth Brown Pryor, Biographer of Clara Barton and Robert E. Lee, Dies at 64
Ms. Pryor, who served more than two decades in the State Department, was the author of well-regarded biographies of the founder of the American Red Cross and the Confederate commander.
Baltimore Residents Away From Turmoil Consider Their Role
BALTIMORE — In the afternoons, the streets of Locust Point are clean and nearly silent. In front of the rowhouses, potted plants rest next to steps of brick or concrete. There is a shopping center nearby with restaurants, and a grocery store filled with fresh foods.
And the National Guard and the police are largely absent. So, too, residents say, are worries about what happened a few miles away on April 27 when, in a space of hours, parts of this city became riot zones.
“They’re not our reality,” Ashley Fowler, 30, said on Monday at the restaurant where she works. “They’re not what we’re living right now. We live in, not to be racist, white America.”
As Baltimore considers its way forward after the violent unrest brought by the death of Freddie Gray, a 25-year-old black man who died of injuries he suffered while in police custody, residents in its predominantly white neighborhoods acknowledge that they are sometimes struggling to understand what beyond Mr. Gray’s death spurred the turmoil here. For many, the poverty and troubled schools of gritty West Baltimore are distant troubles, glimpsed only when they pass through the area on their way somewhere else.
And so neighborhoods of Baltimore are facing altogether different reckonings after Mr. Gray’s death. In mostly black communities like Sandtown-Winchester, where some of the most destructive rioting played out last week, residents are hoping businesses will reopen and that the police will change their strategies. But in mostly white areas like Canton and Locust Point, some residents wonder what role, if any, they should play in reimagining stretches of Baltimore where they do not live.
“Most of the people are kind of at a loss as to what they’re supposed to do,” said Dr. Richard Lamb, a dentist who has practiced in the same Locust Point office for nearly 39 years. “I listen to the news reports. I listen to the clergymen. I listen to the facts of the rampant unemployment and the lack of opportunities in the area. Listen, I pay my taxes. Exactly what can I do?”
And in Canton, where the restaurants have clever names like Nacho Mama’s and Holy Crepe Bakery and Café, Sara Bahr said solutions seemed out of reach for a proudly liberal city.
“I can only imagine how frustrated they must be,” said Ms. Bahr, 36, a nurse who was out with her 3-year-old daughter, Sally. “I just wish I knew how to solve poverty. I don’t know what to do to make it better.”
The day of unrest and the overwhelmingly peaceful demonstrations that followed led to hundreds of arrests, often for violations of the curfew imposed on the city for five consecutive nights while National Guard soldiers patrolled the streets. Although there were isolated instances of trouble in Canton, the neighborhood association said on its website, many parts of southeast Baltimore were physically untouched by the tumult.
Tensions in the city bubbled anew on Monday after reports that the police had wounded a black man in Northwest Baltimore. The authorities denied those reports and sent officers to talk with the crowds that gathered while other officers clutching shields blocked traffic at Pennsylvania and West North Avenues.
Lt. Col. Melvin Russell, a community police officer, said officers had stopped a man suspected of carrying a handgun and that “one of those rounds was spent.”
Colonel Russell said officers had not opened fire, “so we couldn’t have shot him.”
The colonel said the man had not been injured but was taken to a hospital as a precaution. Nearby, many people stood in disbelief, despite the efforts by the authorities to quash reports they described as “unfounded.”
Monday’s episode was a brief moment in a larger drama that has yielded anger and confusion. Although many people said they were familiar with accounts of the police harassing or intimidating residents, many in Canton and Locust Point said they had never experienced it themselves. When they watched the unrest, which many protesters said was fueled by feelings that they lived only on Baltimore’s margins, even those like Ms. Bahr who were pained by what they saw said they could scarcely comprehend the emotions associated with it.
But others, like Lambi Vasilakopoulos, who runs a casual restaurant in Canton, said they were incensed by what unfolded last week.
“What happened wasn’t called for. Protests are one thing; looting is another thing,” he said, adding, “We’re very frustrated because we’re the ones who are going to pay for this.”
There were pockets of optimism, though, that Baltimore would enter a period of reconciliation.
“I’m just hoping for peace,” Natalie Boies, 53, said in front of the Locust Point home where she has lived for 50 years. “Learn to love each other; be patient with each other; find justice; and care.”
A skeptical Mr. Vasilakopoulos predicted tensions would worsen.
“It cannot be fixed,” he said. “It’s going to get worse. Why? Because people don’t obey the laws. They don’t want to obey them.”
But there were few fears that the violence that plagued West Baltimore last week would play out on these relaxed streets. The authorities, Ms. Fowler said, would make sure of that.
“They kept us safe here,” she said. “I didn’t feel uncomfortable when I was in my house three blocks away from here. I knew I was going to be O.K. because I knew they weren’t going to let anyone come and loot our properties or our businesses or burn our cars.”
But an unusual assortment of players, including furniture makers, the Chinese government, Republicans from states with a large base of furniture manufacturing and even some Democrats who championed early regulatory efforts, have questioned the E.P.A. proposal. The sustained opposition has held sway, as the agency is now preparing to ease key testing requirements before it releases the landmark federal health standard.
The E.P.A.’s five-year effort to adopt this rule offers another example of how industry opposition can delay and hamper attempts by the federal government to issue regulations, even to control substances known to be harmful to human health.
Formaldehyde is a known carcinogen that can also cause respiratory ailments like asthma, but the potential of long-term exposure to cause cancers like myeloid leukemia is less well understood.
The E.P.A.’s decision would be the first time that the federal government has regulated formaldehyde inside most American homes.
“The stakes are high for public health,” said Tom Neltner, senior adviser for regulatory affairs at the National Center for Healthy Housing, who has closely monitored the debate over the rules. “What we can’t have here is an outcome that fails to confront the health threat we all know exists.”
The proposal would not ban formaldehyde — commonly used as an ingredient in wood glue in furniture and flooring — but it would impose rules that prevent dangerous levels of the chemical’s vapors from those products, and would set testing standards to ensure that products sold in the United States comply with those limits. The debate has sharpened in the face of growing concern about the safety of formaldehyde-treated flooring imported from Asia, especially China.
What is certain is that a lot of money is at stake: American companies sell billions of dollars’ worth of wood products each year that contain formaldehyde, and some argue that the proposed regulation would impose unfair costs and restrictions.
Determined to block the agency’s rule as proposed, these industry players have turned to the White House, members of Congress and top E.P.A. officials, pressing them to roll back the testing requirements in particular, calling them redundant and too expensive.
“There are potentially over a million manufacturing jobs that will be impacted if the proposed rule is finalized without changes,” wrote Bill Perdue, the chief lobbyist at the American Home Furnishings Alliance, a leading critic of the testing requirements in the proposed regulation, in one letter to the E.P.A.
Industry opposition helped create an odd alignment of forces working to thwart the rule. The White House moved to strike out key aspects of the proposal. Subsequent appeals for more changes were voiced by players as varied as Senator Barbara Boxer, Democrat of California, and Senator Roger Wicker, Republican of Mississippi, as well as furniture industry lobbyists.
Hurricane Katrina in 2005 helped ignite the public debate over formaldehyde, after the deadly storm destroyed or damaged hundreds of thousands of homes along the Gulf of Mexico, forcing families into temporary trailers provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
The displaced storm victims quickly began reporting respiratory problems, burning eyes and other issues, and tests then confirmed high levels of formaldehyde fumes leaking into the air inside the trailers, which in many cases had been hastily constructed.
Public health advocates petitioned the E.P.A. to issue limits on formaldehyde in building materials and furniture used in homes, given that limits already existed for exposure in workplaces. But three years after the storm, only California had issued such limits.
Industry groups like the American Chemistry Council have repeatedly challenged the science linking formaldehyde to cancer, a position championed by David Vitter, the Republican senator from Louisiana, who is a major recipient of chemical industry campaign contributions, and whom environmental groups have mockingly nicknamed “Senator Formaldehyde.”
By 2010, public health advocates and some industry groups secured bipartisan support in Congress for legislation that ordered the E.P.A. to issue federal rules that largely mirrored California’s restrictions. At the time, concerns were rising over the growing number of lower-priced furniture imports from Asia that might include contaminated products, while also hurting sales of American-made products.
Maneuvering began almost immediately after the E.P.A. prepared draft rules to formally enact the new standards.
White House records show at least five meetings in mid-2012 with industry executives — kitchen cabinet makers, chemical manufacturers, furniture trade associations and their lobbyists, like Brock R. Landry, of the Venable law firm. These parties, along with Senator Vitter’s office, appealed to top administration officials, asking them to intervene to roll back the E.P.A. proposal.
The White House Office of Management and Budget, which reviews major federal regulations before they are adopted, apparently agreed. After the White House review, the E.P.A. “redlined” many of the estimates of the monetary benefits that would be gained by reductions in related health ailments, like asthma and fertility issues, documents reviewed by The New York Times show.
As a result, the estimated benefit of the proposed rule dropped to $48 million a year, from as much as $278 million a year. The much-reduced amount deeply weakened the agency’s justification for the sometimes costly new testing that would be required under the new rules, a federal official involved in the effort said.
“It’s a redlining blood bath,” said Lisa Heinzerling, a Georgetown University Law School professor and a former E.P.A. official, using the Washington phrase to describe when language is stricken from a proposed rule. “Almost the entire discussion of these potential benefits was excised.”
“That’s a huge difference,” said Luke Bolar, a spokesman for Mr. Vitter, of the reduced estimated financial benefits, saying the change was “clearly highlighting more mismanagement” at the E.P.A.
The review’s outcome galvanized opponents in the furniture industry. They then targeted a provision that mandated new testing of laminated wood, a cheaper alternative to hardwood. (The California standard on which the law was based did not require such testing.)
But E.P.A. scientists had concluded that these laminate products — millions of which are sold annually in the United States — posed a particular risk. They said that when thin layers of wood, also known as laminate or veneer, are added to furniture or flooring in the final stages of manufacturing, the resulting product can generate dangerous levels of fumes from often-used formaldehyde-based glues.
Industry executives, outraged by what they considered an unnecessary and financially burdensome level of testing, turned every lever within reach to get the requirement removed. It would be particularly onerous, they argued, for small manufacturers that would have to repeatedly interrupt their work to do expensive new testing. The E.P.A. estimated that the expanded requirements for laminate products would cost the furniture industry tens of millions of dollars annually, while the industry said that the proposed rule over all would cost its 7,000 American manufacturing facilities over $200 million each year.
“A lot of people don’t seem to appreciate what a lot of these requirements do to a small operation,” said Dick Titus, executive vice president of the Kitchen Cabinet Manufacturers Association, whose members are predominantly small businesses. “A 10-person shop, for example, just really isn’t equipped to handle that type of thing.”
Big industry players also weighed in. Executives from companies including La-Z-Boy, Hooker Furniture and Ashley Furniture all flew to Washington for a series of meetings with the offices of lawmakers including House Speaker John Boehner, Republican of Ohio, and about a dozen other lawmakers, asking several of them to sign a letter prepared by the industry to press the E.P.A. to back down, according to an industry report describing the lobbying visit.
The industry lobbyists also held their own meeting at E.P.A. headquarters, and they urged Jim Jones, who oversaw the rule-making process as the assistant administrator for the agency’s Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, to visit a North Carolina furniture manufacturing plant. According to the trade group, Mr. Jones told them that the visit had “helped the agency shift its thinking” about the rules and how laminated products should be treated.
The resistance was particularly intense from lawmakers like Mr. Wicker of Mississippi, whose state is home to major manufacturing plants owned by Ashley Furniture Industries, the world’s largest furniture maker, and who is one of the biggest recipients in Congress of donations from the industry’s trade association. Asked if the political support played a role, a spokesman for Mr. Wicker replied: “Thousands of Mississippians depend on the furniture manufacturing industry for their livelihoods. Senator Wicker is committed to defending all Mississippians from government overreach.”
Individual companies like Ikea also intervened, as did the Chinese government, which claimed that the new rule would create a “great barrier” to the import of Chinese products because of higher costs.
Perhaps the most surprising objection came from Senator Boxer, of California, a longtime environmental advocate, whose office questioned why the E.P.A.’s rule went further than her home state’s in seeking testing on laminated products. “We did not advocate an outcome, other than safety,” her office said in a statement about why the senator raised concerns. “We said ‘Take a look to see if you have it right.’ ”
Safety advocates say that tighter restrictions — like the ones Ms. Boxer and Mr. Wicker, along with Representative Doris Matsui, a California Democrat, have questioned — are necessary, particularly for products coming from China, where items as varied as toys and Christmas lights have been found to violate American safety standards.
While Mr. Neltner, the environmental advocate who has been most involved in the review process, has been open to compromise, he has pressed the E.P.A. not to back down entirely, and to maintain a requirement that laminators verify that their products are safe.
An episode of CBS’s “60 Minutes” in March brought attention to the issue when it accused Lumber Liquidators, the discount flooring retailer, of selling laminate products with dangerous levels of formaldehyde. The company has disputed the show’s findings and test methods, maintaining that its products are safe.
“People think that just because Congress passed the legislation five years ago, the problem has been fixed,” said Becky Gillette, who then lived in coastal Mississippi, in the area hit by Hurricane Katrina, and was among the first to notice a pattern of complaints from people living in the trailers. “Real people’s faces and names come up in front of me when I think of the thousands of people who could get sick if this rule is not done right.”
An aide to Ms. Matsui rejected any suggestion that she was bending to industry pressure.
“From the beginning the public health has been our No. 1 concern,” said Kyle J. Victor, an aide to Ms. Matsui.
But further changes to the rule are likely, agency officials concede, as they say they are searching for a way to reduce the cost of complying with any final rule while maintaining public health goals. The question is just how radically the agency will revamp the testing requirement for laminated products — if it keeps it at all.
“It’s not a secret to anybody that is the most challenging issue,” said Mr. Jones, the E.P.A. official overseeing the process, adding that the health consequences from formaldehyde are real. “We have to reduce those exposures so that people can live healthy lives and not have to worry about being in their homes.”